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Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

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  • Develop a solution to a specific ethical dilemma faced by a health care professional by applying ethical principles. Describe the issues and a possible solution in a 3-5-page paper.

    INTRODUCTION

    Whether you are a nurse, a public health professional, a health care administrator, or in another role in the health care field, you must base your decisions on a set of ethical principles and values. Your decisions must be fair, equitable, and defensible. Each discipline has established a professional code of ethics to guide ethical behavior. In this assessment, you will practice working through an ethical dilemma as described in a case study. Your practice will help you develop a method for formulating ethical decisions.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

    DEMONSTRATION OF PROFICIENCY

    By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

    • Competency 1: Apply information literacy and library research skills to obtain scholarly information in the field of health care.
      • Apply academic peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case.
    • Competency 3: Apply ethical principles and academic standards to the study of health care.
      • Summarize the facts in a case study and use the three components of an ethical decision-making model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that contributed to it.
      • Discuss the effectiveness of the communication approaches present in a case study.
      • Discuss the effectiveness of the approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study.
      • Apply ethical principles to a possible solution to an ethical problem or issue described in a case study.
    • Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others, and that is consistent with expectations for health care professionals.
      • Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
      • Write following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references.

    INSTRUCTIONS

    Note: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. At a minimum, be sure to address each point. In addition, you are encouraged to review the performance level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.For this assessment, you will develop a solution to a specific ethical dilemma faced by a health care professional. In your assessment:

    1. Access the Ethical Case Studies | Transcript media piece to review the case studies you may use for this assessment.
      • Select the case most closely related to your area of interest and use it to complete the assessment.
      • Note: The case study may not supply all of the information you need. In such cases, you should consider a variety of possibilities and infer potential conclusions. However, please be sure to identify any assumptions or speculations you make.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion
    2. Identify which case study you selected and briefly summarize the facts surrounding it. Identify the problem or issue that presents an ethical dilemma or challenge and describe that dilemma or challenge.
    3. Access the Ethical Decision-Making Model | Transcript media piece and use the three components of the ethical decision-making model (moral awareness, moral judgment, and ethical behavior) to analyze the ethical issues.
    4. Analyze the factors that contributed to the problem or issue.
      • Identify who is involved or affected by the problem or issue.
      • Describe the factors that contributed to the problem or issue and explain how they contributed.
    5. In addition to the readings provided, use the Capella library to locate at least one academic peer-reviewed journal article relevant to the problem or issue that you can use to support your analysis of the situation.
      • Cite and apply the journal article as evidence to support your critical thinking and analysis of the case.
      • Assess the credibility of the information source.
      • Assess the relevance of the information source.
    6. Discuss the effectiveness of the communication approaches present in the case study.
      • Describe how the health care professional communicated with others.
      • Describe the communication and communication strategies that were applied, both in creating and in resolving the problems or issues presented.
      • Assess instances where the professional communicated effectively or ineffectively.
    7. Discuss the effectiveness of the approach used by the professional related to any problems or issues involving ethical practice in the case.
      • Describe the actions taken in response to the ethical dilemma or challenge presented in the case study.
      • Summarize how well the professional managed professional responsibilities and priorities to resolve the problem or issue in the case.
      • Discuss the key lessons this case provides for health care professionals.
    8. Apply ethical principles to a possible solution to the proposed problem or issue from the case study.
      • Describe the proposed solution.
      • Discuss how the approach makes this professional more effective or less effective in building relationships across disciplines within his or her organization.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion
      • Discuss how likely it is the proposed solution will foster professional collaboration.
    9. Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
      • Determine the proper application of the rules of grammar and mechanics.
    10. Write using APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion
      • Determine the proper application of APA formatting requirements and scholarly writing standards.
      • Apply the principles of effective composition.
      • Integrate information from outside sources into academic writing by appropriately quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing, following APA style.

    Example Assessment: You may use the following to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like:

    Additional Requirements
    1. Length: At least 3–5 typed, double-spaced pages, not including the title page and reference page.
    2. Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
    3. APA Template: Use the APA Style Paper Template [DOCX] as the paper format and use the APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX] for guidance.
    4. Written communication: Use correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
    5. References: Integrate information from outside sources to include at least two references (the case study and an academic peer-reviewed journal article) and three in-text citations within the paper.
    6. APA format: Follow current APA guidelines for in-text citation of outside sources in the body of your paper and also on the reference page.

    Note: Read the Applying Ethical Principles Scoring Guide to fully understand how your paper will be graded.If you would like assistance in organizing your assessment, or if you simply have a question about your assessment, do not hesitate to ask faculty or the teaching assistants in the NHS Learner Success Lab for guidance and suggestions.Note: Your instructor may also use the Writing Feedback Tool to provide feedback on your writing. In the tool, click the linked resources for helpful writing information.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

thical Case Studies Consider the ethical dilemma the health care professional faces in the selected case study. Pay particular attention to details that will help you analyze the situation using the three components of the Ethical Decision Making Model (moral awareness, moral judgment, and ethical behavior). Note: The case study may not supply all of the information you may need for the assignment. In such cases, you should consider a variety of possibilities and infer potential conclusions. However, please be sure to identify any speculations that you make. Reducing Hospital Readmissions Caleb Powell was preparing the agenda for the upcoming executive leadership meeting and he shook his head ruefully. As chief executive officer for Virginia County Regional Hospital (VCRH), Caleb believes that a key piece of VCRH’s future success lies in reducing readmission rates, not only in the areas identified by federal guidelines, but across the board. A few weeks ago, he read a piece from the National Institutes of Health discussing strategies associated with reduction in readmission rates. He decided that he wanted to discuss the issue in detail with his leadership team. Caleb’s goal is to align the hospital’s strategic planning with the goal of reducing readmissions. The stakes are high; under provisions of the Affordable Care Act, hospitals with higher than expected 30 day readmission rates for heart failure, heart attack and pneumonia are penalized with reduced payments.

Historically, hospitals (including VCRH) have struggled to avoid the penalties, but Caleb believes that a focused approach will allow them to be successful. He also believes that reducing readmission rates will improve patient satisfaction, which has become a key metric in measuring hospital quality. Caleb’s initial research into this issue revealed that while many facilities were incurring the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) penalties, there was still significant variability in terms of hospitals implementing successful strategies for reducing their readmission rates. However, several themes have emerged. Hospitals that established partnerships with physicians, physician groups and other local hospitals have had greater success. In addition, a clear discharge planning process and nurse driven medication reconciliation have also been associated with reducing the risk of readmissions. At the same time, Caleb is concerned that an aggressive policy to avoid readmissions could be construed as too focused on the hospital’s bottom line and indifferent to patient needs. The last thing he wants is to create a policy that prevents patients from seeking or receiving care. Caleb hopes that this meeting will begin a productive discussion around developing strategies to improve VCRH’s performance in this area. Caleb’s email to the executive leadership team with the agenda for the meeting included the following note: “As we research the readmission rate issue for improvement, we need to be aware that we cannot add additional days to the patient’s initial stay. It’s a balancing act. We also cannot hinder a patient from coming back into the hospital for a readmission. I’ll be asking for your input about whether we should create a system to profile health care providers whose patients have high readmission rates.”

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL Ethical decision-making at an individual level and one’s ethical behavior can be viewed in three primary steps using an ethical decision-making model. First is one’s moral awareness, recognizing the existence of an ethical dilemma. This is the pathway to establishing the need for an ethical decision. This awareness is an individual sensitivity to one’s values and personal morals. Once a personal awareness is evident, we can make a judgment in deciding what is right or wrong. This sounds simple, yet there are a number of variables driving this personal judgment. One variable is the individual differences and cognitive bias we all have based on our personal history and experiences. A second variable is the organization. This variable may be influenced from a group, organizational or cultural perspective. A code of conduct or standards of behavior may also influence our judgment. This model, operating in a dynamic fashion, leads us to our ethical behavior; taking action to do the right thing. Is the right thing the same decision for everyone? Obviously not. We are all influenced my multiple factors in our decision-making. This decision-making model can help us understand the pathway to our ethical decisions.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

REFERENCES • Trevino, L. K., Nelson, K. A. (2007). Business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. Wiley. CREDITS Subject Matter Expert: John Herr Interactive Design: Tara Schiller Instructional Designer: Lee Scholder Project Manager: Daniela Green Example Running head: APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 1 Applying Ethical Learner’s Name Capella University Developing a Health Care Perspective Applying Ethical Principles January, 2018 Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. Comment [A1]: You effectively used the APA Style Paper Template at the Assessment 1 Resources area – Resources. Principles APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 2 Applying Ethical Principles Health care professionals often face ethical problems during their practice that require them to use their moral values and principles when making decisions. The four fundamental principles of health care ethics—autonomy, beneficence, nomaleficence, and justice—act as yardsticks for fair and ethical decision-making. These ethical principles are widely accepted in the field of health care. Medical practitioners and health care administrators often use these principles to make decisions when faced with complex situations involving patients. Overview of the Case Study Betsy is a dedicated pediatric nurse known for the care and concern she shows her .Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

Her neighbor and friend, Alice, lives with her husband and 4-year-old daughter, Shirley. Alice and her husband are followers of Christian Science, a belief that advocates spiritual healing and discourages most types of medical intervention. One day, when visiting Alice and Shirley, Betsy sees Shirley experience what seems like a seizure. The child suddenly becomes unresponsive and has a brief staring spell, with her eyes rolling upward. The episode lasts for 20 seconds, during which she seems completely unaware of her surroundings. While Shirley is having the seizure, Alice sits by her side and prays but takes no other action. Betsy is concerned about the little girl’s condition and probes her friend for details. Alice tells Betsy that Shirley used to have around 15–20 such episodes a day until a few months ago; this has now reduced to about 12. Alice attributes the improvement in Shirley’s health to her prayers and faith. However, this does not help Betsy feel comfortable about Shirley’s condition. She is almost certain that Shirley has epilepsy, which, if not treated on time, could have profound health implications. At the very least, she thinks Alice should have Shirley’s symptoms accurately diagnosed. Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. Comment [A2]: Remember to add an APA citation to the case study. Note: Each paragraph discussing the case study should have an APA citation. patients APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 3 Understanding the gravity of the situation, Betsy sets up a meeting with Shirley’s parents and Dr. Campbell, director of the neurology department at her hospital. She treats this meeting as an intervention, and both she and Dr. Campbell express their concern for Shirley’s health. They stress on the fact that the improvement in Shirley’s symptoms does not necessarily mean she will be cured. They empathize with Alice and her husband’s reluctance on account of their religious faith but reiterate the importance of getting Shirley’s symptoms diagnosed. To prove their point, they present studies that describe how seizures can be indicative of illnesses such as epilepsy, which could negatively affect her cognition and behavior. Shirley’s parents are grateful that Betsy and Dr. Campbell are concerned about their daughter’s health but remain resolute about going against their faith.Applying Ethical Principles Paper Discussion

They believe that prayer will cure her. Betsy is faced with an ethical dilemma of whether she should respect the parents’ religious beliefs and not intervene in the matter or perform her moral obligation as a health care professional. Analysis of Ethical Issues in the Case In the case study, the main factor that led to Betsy’s ethical dilemma is Shirley’s parents’ refusal of medical assistance for their daughter owing to their Christian Science beliefs. When Betsy notices Shirley’s seizures, she thinks it is her duty to make sure Shirley receives medical attention. As she respects the religious faith and belief of Shirley’s parents, she decides to explain the risks that seizures could involve. She also includes Dr. Campbell in the conversation so that he could provide an objective opinion to make them understand the need for medical intervention. However, Shirley’s parents are certain that prayer will cure her seizures. Considering that their attitude could result in serious health implication for Shirley, Betsy is concerned about the little girl receiving appropriate medical attention (Baumrucker, et al., 2017).

Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. Comment [A3]: Sub-headers, like these used here, are helpful in alerting the reader about topic changes. Study APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 4 Using the Ethical Decision-Making Model to Analyze the Case Study The three components of the ethical decision-making model—moral awareness, moral judgment, and ethical behavior—can help analyze the ethical issue outlined in the case study. Whereas moral awareness is knowledge of the existence of an ethical dilemma, moral judgment involves choosing between the right and wrong actions when posed with such a dilemma. Both moral awareness and moral judgment lead to ethical behavior. Ethical behavior is taking the right action to resolve a dilemma. Betsy’s moral awareness is reflected by the fact that she recognizes the circumstances surrounding Shirley’s condition. Her moral judgment is reflected by her decision to try to convince Shirley’s parents to get Shirley medical help because she believed that it was the right thing to do. Betsy’s ethical behavior constitutes the action she takes to resolve the dilemma. This, in turn, depends on her personal judgment and the four principles of health care ethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) she should abide by as a health care . Effectiveness of Communication Approaches in the Case Study Listening plays an important role in patient–physician communication. By listening to Alice, Betsy learns of the frequency of Shirley’s seizures and the reduction in their occurrence. She also learns that Alice and her husband believe that this reduction is due to their prayers and faith in Christian Science. Therefore, active listening helps Betsy understand the situation . Betsy is aware that if she decides to get medical help for Shirley without the consent of Shirley’s parents, she would be violating their right to informed consent and overstepping her boundaries as a health care professional. So, she decides to present them with the information they need to make an informed decision. She maintains an open communication with Shirley’s parents while explaining the impact of seizures on their daughter’s health. She stresses the Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. Comment [A4]: You effectively used the 3 components of an ethical decision-making model to analyze this ethical issue. Comment [A5]: This section shows your good critical thinking regarding communication approaches to use! professional better APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 5 importance of immediate diagnosis of Shirley’s seizures.

Thus, by being respectful of Shirley’s parents’ emotions and providing them with complete information about the problem, Betsy communicates the situation to them in an effective manner. During the discussion with Shirley’s parents, both Betsy and Dr. Campbell are empathetic toward Alice and her husband’s reluctance to get the necessary medical help for their daughter on account of their religious faith. Betsy seems to have involved Dr. Campbell so that he could share his objective expert opinion based on his experience in dealing with patients who have similar symptoms. She probably thought that Shirley’s parents would change their decision if Dr. Campbell reiterated that Shirley could develop severe cognitive problems (such as learning difficulties and memory deficits) or behavioral problems (such as irritability, anxiety, hyperactivity, and mood swings) if her seizures are neglected. However, they were unable to convince Shirley’s parents to get Shirley medically diagnosed. Although Betsy followed a systematic approach while dealing with the issue at hand, it seems to have been ineffective as Shirley’s parents continued to stand by their faith in prayer. However, listening patiently to patients’ problems and showing empathy and genuine care while communicating with them are some lessons that health care professionals can take back from this case study. Resolving the Ethical Dilemma by Applying Ethical Principles The four ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice are often employed to resolve ethical dilemmas related to health care. Autonomy refers to accepting and understanding patients’ values, beneficence refers to acting for the welfare of patients, nonmaleficence refers to not doing harm to the patient, and justice refers to treating patients fairly without bias. Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 6 The ethical dilemma that Betsy faces in this case involves three of the four basic principles of medical ethics. In the case study, the ethical dilemma is caused by the conflict between the principles of autonomy on the one hand and beneficence and nonmaleficence on the other. Betsy preserves the autonomy of Shirley’s parents by respecting their religious beliefs and not coercing them to get the girl correctly diagnosed. She further ropes in Dr. Campbell to try to explain to them the importance of getting an accurate diagnosis. Approaching Child Protective Services—a social service agency run by the government to counsel and support children and their families and promote child welfare—could be considered by Betsy as an ethical means to resolve the . As Betsy is obligated to help Shirley get medical care (beneficence) and prevent any harm that might be caused from ignoring her seizures (nonmaleficence), she could seek intervention from Child Protective Services. Although involving Child Protective Services could result in overriding the ethical principle of autonomy, Betsy might have to take this decision keeping Shirley’s best interests in mind (Baumrucker et al., 2017).

Conclusion The four principles of health care ethics can be applied by health care professionals to analyze and resolve ethical dilemmas. In the case study, Betsy has to decide between respecting Shirley’s parents’ religious beliefs and performing her moral obligation as a health care professional by helping Shirley seek medical care. The proposed solution involves upholding the principles of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence to resolve Betsy’s ethical dilemma. Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.Order Professional Assignment Papers from Nursing Essay Gurus and be guaranteed of A++ Scores.

Comment [A6]: You provided a clear plan on how to address this issue. Also, the proposed solution is based on ethical principles. dilemma APPLYING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 7 Baumrucker, S. J., Easterday, J., Stolick, M., McCall-Burton, M., Adkins, R. W., Winiger, D., & Cook, C. (2017). Ethics roundtable: Parental autonomy and the minor patient. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 34(3), 287–292. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com.library.capella.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/1049909115608812 Capella University (2018). NHS-FP4000 Exemplar Sample Ethical Case Study. Retrieved from Copyright ©2018 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. Applying Ethical Principles Scoring Guide CRITERIA NONPERFORMANC E Summarize the facts in a case study and use the three components of an ethical decisionmaking model to analyze an ethical problem or Does not summarize the facts in a case study and use the three components of an ethical decisionmaking model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that BASIC PROFICIENT Inadequately summarizes the facts in a case study or incompletely uses the three components of an ethical decisionmaking model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that Summarizes the facts in a case study and uses the three components of an ethical decisionmaking model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that DISTINGUISHE D Summarizes the facts in a case study and uses the three components of an ethical decisionmaking model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that contributed to it. Supports the reasoning with

CRITERIA NONPERFORMANC E BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHE D issue and the factors that contributed to it. contributed to it. contributed to it. contributed to it. examples from scholarly readings. Apply academic peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case. Does not apply academic peerreviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case. Identifies academic peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence but does not apply them to support an analysis of the case. Applies academic peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case. Applies academic peerreviewed journal articles relevant to an ethical problem or issue as evidence to support an analysis of the case; explains how the chosen articles support the analysis. Discuss the effectiveness of the communicatio n approaches present in a case study. Does not discuss the effectiveness of the communication approaches present in a case study. Describes the communicatio n approaches present in a case study but does not discuss their effectiveness. Discusses the effectiveness of the communicatio n approaches present in a case study. Discusses the effectiveness of the communication approaches present in a case study, explaining which approaches should be used more and which should be avoided.

Discuss the effectiveness Does not discuss the effectiveness Describes the approach used by a Discusses the effectiveness of the Discusses the effectiveness of the approach CRITERIA NONPERFORMANC E BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHE D of the approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study. of the approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study. professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study but does not discuss its effectiveness. approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study. used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study, and describes consequences of using effecti …Order Professional Assignment Papers from Nursing Essay Gurus and be guaranteed of A++ Scores.