Suppose you have been invited to participate in a roundtable discussion meeting on the development of a community response to crises. To prepare for this discussion, you have been asked to research ways that other communities have provided health care services during crisis situations, identify best practices, and develop a nursing response for providing health care services. You would be presenting your research and nursing response to the roundtable panel during the meeting.
Select two communities that have suffered a crisis of some kind within ten years of each other. For example, you might choose to look at New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina in comparison to New Jersey and Hurricane Sandy. You might address the 2011 tornado outbreak and compare the response of Joplin, Missouri with the response of Birmingham, Alabama. Or, you might choose to look at the responses to volcano eruptions in Hawaii as compared to Washington State. You are not limited to natural disasters; feel free to explore environmental disasters and outbreaks of disease. Try to choose the type of crisis situation that could occur within your own community.
Once you have selected your two communities and their comparable crisis situations, look in the Capella library and on the Internet for scholarly journal articles on how health care professionals responded to the crises.
For this assessment, create a PowerPoint presentation that examines provision of health care services related to community crises, from a nursing perspective. In your PowerPoint, address the following:
- Compare the different approaches of two communities for responding to a community crisis.
- Explain how the crisis situation in each community affected the overall health of the community.
- Describe potential obstacles in your own community to providing health care services related to community crises.
- Explain current practices in your own community for providing health care services related to community crises.
- Recommend an evidence-based nursing response for providing health care services related to community crises.
- Your nursing response does not need to be overly detailed. In real life, a nursing response would be the work of a committee or another group, based on the research and recommendations of others.
- Your nursing response should provide foundational research and recommendations based on evidence. Consider things such as triage points, communication methods, caring for staff, providing basic necessities such as food and water, use of other organizations for shelter, and so on.
Use the Notes section of each PowerPoint slide to expand your points and provide supporting evidence.
Complete your assessment using the following specifications:
- Include a title slide and reference slide.
- Number of slides: 10–15.
- At least 3 current scholarly or professional resources.
- APA format for in-text citations and references.
- Be creative. Consider your target audience.
The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:
- Kagan, P. N. (2011). Catastrophe and response: Expanding the notion of self to mobilize nurses’ attention to policy and activism. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(1), 71–78.
- Kane-Urrabazo, C. (2007). Duty in a time of disaster: A concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 42(2), 56–64.
- VanVactor, J. D. (2011). Health care logistics: Who has the ball during disaster? Emerging Health Threats, 41, 1–7.
Course Library Guide
A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the BSN-FP4014 – Global Perspectives of Community and Public Service Library Guide to help direct your research.
Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have either been granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.
- Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2008, January). Emergency support function #8 – Public health and medical services annex (ESF #8). Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-esf-08.p…
- Lee, C. H. (2010). Disaster and mass casualty triage. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 12(6), 466–470. Retrieved from http://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/2010/06/cprl1-…
- Columbia University Medical Center. (n.d.). National center for disaster preparedness. Retrieved from http://ncdp.columbia.edu/
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Emergency preparedness and response: Preparation and planning. Retrieved from http://emergency.cdc.gov/planning/
- Association of Public Health Nurses Public Health Preparedness Committee. (2013). The role of the public health nurse in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery [Policy statement]. Retrieved from http://www.achne.org/files/public/APHN_RoleOfPHNin…
The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation.
- Maurer, F. A., & Smith, C. M. (2013). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: W. B. Saunders.
- Chapter 22.
- The instructional and sample text in this template is informational. After reading the information, please delete it, and use the document as a template for your own paper. To keep the correct format, edit the running head, cover page, headings, and reference list with your own information, and add your own body text. Save this template in a file for future use and information.
The running head is an abbreviated title of the paper. The running head is located at the top of pages of a manuscript or published article to identify the article for readers. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. The words “Running head” are on the cover page but not on the rest of the document. The running head title is all capital letters. Page 1 begins on the cover page. The entire document should be double-spaced, have 1-inch margins on all sides, and use 12 point Times New Roman font.
Full Title of Paper
Learner’s Full Name
Abstract (As this section is optional, check with your instructor.)
An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of a paper. It allows readers to quickly review the key elements of a paper without having to read the entire document. This can be helpful for readers who are searching for specific information and may be reviewing many documents. The abstract may be one of the most important paragraphs in a paper because readers often decide if they will read the document based on information in the abstract. An abstract may not be required in some academic papers; however, it can still be an effective method of gaining the reader’s attention. For example, an abstract will not be required for Capella’s first course, PSYC3002. The following sentences serve as an example of what could be composed as an abstract for this paper: The basic elements of APA style will be reviewed, including formatting of an APA style paper, in-text citations, and a reference list. Additional information will address the components of an introduction, how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and elements of a summary and conclusion section of a paper.
APA Style Paper Template: A Resource for Academic Writing
Please change the titles in this document to fit your paper.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. APA style is used when writing papers in the psychology programs offered at Capella University. This document serves as an APA style template for learners to use when writing their own papers, as well as a resource containing valuable information that can be used when writing academic papers. For more information on APA style, learners can refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010a).
The author demonstrates in the first section of this paper how an introduction effectively introduces the reader to the topic of the paper. In APA style, an introduction never gets a heading. For example, this section did not begin with a heading titled “Introduction,” similar to the following section, which is titled “Writing an Effective Introduction.” The following section will explain in greater detail a model that can be used to effectively write an introduction in an academic paper. The remaining sections of the paper will continue to address APA style and effective writing concepts including section headings, organizing information, the MEAL plan, the conclusion, and the reference list.
Writing an Effective Introduction
An effective introduction often consists of four main components including (a) the position statement, thesis, or hypothesis, which describes the author’s main position; (b) the purpose, which outlines the objective of the paper; (c) the background, which is general information that is needed to understand the content of the paper; and (d) the approach, which is the process or methodology the author uses to achieve the purpose of the paper. This information will help readers understand what will be discussed in the paper. It can also serve as a tool to grab the reader’s attention. Authors may choose to briefly reference sources that will be identified later on in the paper as in this example (American Psychological Association, 2010a; American Psychological Association, 2010b; Walker, 2008).
In an introduction, the writer will often present something of interest to capture the reader’s attention and introduce the issue. Adding an obvious statement of purpose helps the reader know what to expect, while helping the writer to focus and stay on task. For example, this paper will address several components necessary to effectively write an academic paper including (a) how to write an introduction, (b) how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and (c) how to properly use APA style.
Level One Section Heading is Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase
Using section headings can be an effective method of organizing an academic paper. The section headings should not be confused with the running head, which is a different concept described in the cover page of this document. Section headings are not required according to APA style; however, they can significantly improve the quality of a paper. This is accomplished because section headings help both the reader and the author.
Level Two Section Heading is Flush Left, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase
The heading style recommended by APA consists of five levels (American Psychological Association, 2010a, p. 62). This document contains two levels to demonstrate how headings are structured according to APA style. Immediately before the previous paragraph, a Level 1 heading was used. That section heading describes how a Level 1 heading should be written, which is centered, bold, and using uppercase and lowercase letters. For another example, see the section heading “Writing an Effective Introduction” on page 3 of this document. The heading is centered, bold, and uses uppercase and lowercase letters (compared to all uppercase in the running head at the top of each page). If used properly, section headings can significantly contribute to the quality of a paper by helping the reader who wants to understand the information in the document, and the author who desires to effectively describe the information in the document.
Section Headings Help the Reader
Section headings serve multiple purposes including (a) helping readers understand what is being addressed in each section, (b) breaking up text to help readers maintain an interest in the paper, and (c) helping readers choose what they want to read. For example, if the reader of this document wants to learn more about writing an effective introduction, the previous section heading clearly states that is where information can be found. When subtopics are needed to explain concepts in greater detail, different levels of headings are used according to APA style.
Section Headings Help the Author
Section headings do not only help the reader, they help the author organize the document during the writing process. Section headings can be used to arrange topics in a logical order, and they can help an author manage the length of the paper. In addition to an effective introduction and the use of section headings, each paragraph of an academic paper can be written in a manner that helps the reader stay engaged. Capella University promotes the use of the MEAL plan to serve this purpose.
The MEAL Plan
The MEAL plan is a model used by Capella University to help learners effectively compose academic discussions and papers. Each component of the MEAL plan is critical to writing an effective paragraph. The acronym MEAL is based on four components of a paragraph (M = Main point, E = Evidence or Example, A = Analysis, and L = Link). The following section includes a detailed description and examples of each component of the MEAL plan.
When writing the content sections of an academic paper (as opposed to the introduction or conclusion sections), the MEAL plan can be an effective model for designing each paragraph. A paragraph begins with a description of the main point, which is represented by the letter “M” of the MEAL plan. For example, the first sentence of this paragraph clearly states the main point is a discussion of the MEAL plan. Once the main point has been made, evidence and examples can be provided.
The second component of a paragraph contains evidence or examples, which is represented by the letter “E” in the MEAL plan. An example of this component of the MEAL plan is actually (and ironically) this sentence, which provides an example of an example. Evidence can be in the form of expert opinions from research. For example, evidence shows that plagiarism can occur even when it is not intended if sources are not properly cited (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997; Walker, 2008). The previous sentence provides evidence supporting why evidence is used in a paragraph.
Analysis, which is represented by the letter “A” of the MEAL plan, should be based on the author’s interpretation of the evidence. An effective analysis might include a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments, as well as the author’s interpretations of the evidence and examples. If a quote is used, the author will likely provide an analysis of the quote and the specific point it makes for the author’s position. Without an analysis, the reader might not understand why the author discussed the information that the reader just read. For example, the previous sentence was an analysis by the author of why an analysis is performed when writing paragraphs in academic papers.
Even with the first three elements of the MEAL plan, it would not be complete without the final component. The letter “L” of the MEAL plan refers to information that “links” the current and the subsequent paragraphs. The link helps the reader understand what will be discussed in the next paragraph. It summarizes the author’s reasoning and shows how the paragraph fits together and leads (that is, links) into the next section of the paper. For example, this sentence might explain that once the MEAL plan has been effectively used when writing the body of an academic paper, the final section is the summary and conclusion section.
Summary and Conclusion
A summary and conclusion section, which can also be the discussion section of an APA style paper, is the final opportunity for the author to make a lasting impression on the reader. The author can begin by restating opinions or positions and summarizing the most important points that have been presented in the paper. For example, this paper was written to demonstrate to readers how to effectively use APA style when writing academic papers. Various components of an APA style paper that were discussed or displayed in the form of examples include a running head, title page, introduction section, levels of section headings and their use, in-text citations, the MEAL plan, a conclusion, and the reference list.
American Psychological Association. (2010a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Community Crises
American Psychological Association. (2010b). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Marsh, R. L., Landau, J. D., & Hicks, J. L. (1997). Contributions of inadequate source
monitoring to unconscious plagiarism during idea generation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(4), 886–897. doi: 10.1037/0278- 73184.108.40.2066
Walker, A. L. (2008). Preventing unintentional plagiarism: A method for strengthening
paraphrasing skills. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(4), 387–395. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213904438?accountid=27965
Always begin a reference list on a new page. Use a hanging indent after the first line of each reference. The reference list is in alphabetical order by first author’s last name. A reference list only contains sources that are cited in the body of the paper, and all sources cited in the body of the paper must be contained in the reference list.Community Crises
The reference list above contains an example of how to cite a source when two documents are written in the same year by the same author. The year is also displayed using this method for the corresponding in-text citations as in the next sentence. The author of the first citation (American Psychological Association, 2010a) is also the publisher, therefore, the word “Author” is used in place of the publisher’s name.Community Crises
When a digital object identifier (DOI) is available for a journal article, it should be placed at the end of the citation. If a DOI is not available, a uniform resource locator (URL) should be used. The Marsh, Landau, and Hicks (1997) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a DOI. The Walker (2008) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a URL.Community Crises