Family and Sexual Violence

Family and Sexual Violence


Family and Sexual Violence

Nursing and U.S. Policy

Kathryn Laughon, Angela Frederick Amar

“If the numbers we see in domestic violence were applied to terrorism or gang violence, the entire country would be up in arms, and it would be the lead story on the news every night.”

Rep. Mark Green, Wisconsin

Our society is steeped in violence. In the most recent national statistics, more than 26 per 1000 people aged 12 years or older will be the victims of a violent crime (Truman, Langton, & Planty, 2013). Most of our violence prevention strategies prepare potential victims to ward off violent attacks from strangers; yet, someone known to the victim perpetrates most violence against women, children, and older adults. The intimate nature of this violence, often perpetrated behind closed doors, has made these forms of violence less visible. However, the toll of violence on individuals and societies is substantial. The World Health Organization has framed violence as a significant public health problem (Truman, Langton, & Planty, 2013). A public health approach suggests an interdisciplinary, science-based approach with an emphasis on prevention. Effective strategies draw on resources in many fields, including nursing, medicine, criminal justice, epidemiology, and other social scientists.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of state, federal, and health sector policies regarding violence against women in the United States, briefly discuss policies related to violence against children and older adults, and outline the resulting implications for nurses and directions for future work.

Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Against Women

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is physical, sexual, or psychological harm inflicted by a current or former partner (same sex or not) or a current or former spouse (Black et al., 2011). Almost one third of American women experience being hit, slapped, or pushed by an intimate partner, and nearly a quarter will experience serious forms of IPV during their lifetimes. Additionally, nearly one in five women will experience a completed or attempted rape in their lifetimes. Men experience IPV and rape as well, although at far lower rates than do women. About a quarter of men will experience IPV (about 12% serious forms of violence) and nearly 1.5% a completed or attempted rape. Although more than half of women reporting rape report that the assailant was an intimate partner and 40% that the assailant was an acquaintance, men report that half of rapes were by acquaintances and 15% by strangers; the number raped by an intimate partner was too small to estimate.

The health effects of IPV and sexual violence are substantial and cost as much as $8.3 billion in health care and mental health services for victims (Max et al., 2004). Violence is associated with a wide range of health problems, including chronic pain recurring central nervous system symptoms, vaginal and sexually transmitted infections and other gynecological symptoms, and diagnosed gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders (Black et al., 2011). Mental health symptoms include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol and drug use (Black et al., 2011Campbell, 2002).

State Laws Regarding Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence

State laws address a number of issues important for nurses to understand. Most often, crime of IPV and sexual violence are addressed through state laws. Most, although not all, states have laws specifically providing enhanced penalties for assault and battery that occurs between intimate partners. (It worth noting that most laws refer to domestic violence or family abuse rather than IPV.) For example, at least 23 states have some form of mandatory arrest for IPV (Hirschel, 2008). Research findings are mixed on whether mandatory arrest laws reduce reassault (Felson, Ackerman, & Gallagher, 2005Hirschel et al., 2007), although findings from at least one study suggest that the overwhelming majority of victims support mandatory arrest laws (Barata & Schneider, 2004). Additionally, states may have enhanced penalties, such as escalating third offenses to felonies.

Until 1975, all states provided what is called the marital rape exemption under which it was legally impossible to commit rape against one’s wife. Beginning in the mid-1970s, based in part on nursing research, these laws began to change (Campbell & Alford, 1989). Although all states now recognize marital rape as a crime, in some states it is still treated differently from rape by a nonspouse (Prachar, 2010).

Nonlethal strangulation of women is a significant but often overlooked threat to public safety. Most (80%) strangulations of women are committed by intimate partners (Shields et al., 2010). They can result in significant physical health problems for victims (Taliaferro et al., 2009) and substantially increase risk of later lethal violence (Glass et al., 2008). These cases can be difficult to charge and prosecute commensurate with the severity of the crime (Laughon, Glass, & Worrell, 2009); therefore, a growing number of states have strengthened laws related to strangulation.

All states provide for civil protective orders in cases where victims have a reasonable fear of violence from an assailant (Carroll, 2007). States vary widely, however, in who is eligible to obtain an order and how the orders are obtained. For example, in some states minors or dating partners may not be able to obtain orders of protection. Most states provide for civil protection orders against assailants who are accused of sexual assault, but the procedures may be different from those for protective orders against intimate partners. Studies of the effectiveness of these orders are mixed (Logan & Walker, 2009Prachar, 2010).

In addition to these criminal justice remedies, state laws may address other issues related to IPV and sexual violence. As of 2010, 26 states had established intimate partner fatality review teams (Durborow et al., 2010). Fatality review teams use a multidisciplinary, public health approach to reviewing fatalities and identifying risk factors (Websdale, 1999). A handful of states require health care providers to report domestic violence against competent adults. It is important to understand that in most states, IPV and sexual assault are not mandatory reports unless there are other factors present. Family and Sexual Violence

Federal Laws Related to Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence

There are two significant federal laws that address violence against women. The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act was first authorized in 1984. It was most recently authorized through 2015 (Public Law [PL] 111-320 42 U.S.C. 10401, et seq.). It is the primary federal funding source for domestic violence shelters and service programs in the United States. It also funds the work of state coalitions on domestic violence, community-based violence prevention efforts, and a number of smaller training and assistance programs.

The Violence against Women Act (VAWA) was first authorized in 1994 (Title IV, sec. 40001-40703 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, HR 3355, signed as PL 103-322). As states began creating the protective order and criminal statutes discussed earlier, the limitations of this patchwork of remedies became apparent. The VAWA was therefore created to address the gaps in state laws; create federal laws against domestic violence, including protection for immigrant women and enhanced gun control provisions; and fund a variety of violence-related training and other local programs (Valente et al., 2009). The law originally included a provision making crime motivated by gender a civil rights offense. This provision was, however, found unconstitutional in 2000 (Brzonkala v. Morrison, 2000).

The VAWA represented a significant turning point in public policy related to violence against women. Previously, women who received a protective order might find that violations that occurred in other states could not be enforced. The full faith and credit provision of the VAWA requires that protective orders be recognized and enforced across jurisdictional, state, and tribal boundaries within the United States. Likewise, by creating federal crimes of domestic violence and stalking, criminal acts that cross jurisdictional boundaries can now be more easily charged and prosecuted. Under the VAWA, it is illegal for individuals subject to certain types of protective orders or convicted of even misdemeanor domestic violence offenses to possess a firearm. Given that risk of intimate partner homicide increases dramatically when firearms are available to the assailant, this represents an important safeguard for women (Campbell et al., 2003). The VAWA addressed the significant hardships faced by both legal and illegal immigrant women experiencing abuse from their partners. The VAWA additionally funds a wide range of victim advocacy and training programs, with the goal of ensuring that victims of violence receive consistent, competent services in all communities.

Each subsequent renewal of the VAWA has strengthened these provisions. The latest renewal in 2013 expanded its definitions to explicitly include gay, lesbian, and transgender victims; expanded the safeguards available to women assaulted in tribal territories; expanded housing provisions to prohibit discrimination against victims of IPV in all forms of subsidized public housing; strengthened protections for immigrant women; and, for the first time, specifically addressed violence on college campuses (Violence against Women Act, 2013).

Health Policies Related to Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence

As discussed earlier, the health consequences of violence are significant for women. Additionally, women who have experienced violence have significantly higher health care costs than women without a victimization history (Bonomi et al., 2009National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2003). There is now a consensus that these health care settings offer a unique opportunity to identify and support women living with the effects of violence (Family Violence Prevention Fund, 2002World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). The U.S. Preventative Services Taskforce recommends “clinicians screen women of childbearing age for IPV such as domestic violence, and provide or refer women who screen positive to intervention services.” The Institute of Medicine identified screening and brief counseling for interpersonal violence as an essential and evidence-based practice necessary to ensure the well-being of women (National Research Council, 2011). A wide variety of medical and nursing professional organizations also recommend routine screening for violence (Amar et al., 2013). Significant evidence now exists for safety planning strategies to prevent homicide for women in abusive relationships. The Danger Assessment Instrument, for example, has been shown to have good predictive value and can assist women with making a realistic appraisal of their likelihood of experiencing lethal violence (Campbell, Webster, & Glass, 2008). Health care institutions should also have the appropriate capacity to provide care to women in the acute period after a physical or sexual assault (WHO, 2013).

Nurses and other health professionals have a role to play in community responses to violence. Many localities have created sexual assault response teams. These interdisciplinary teams work to ensure consistent, trauma-informed, and effective care for victims of sexual assault. Despite scant research on the effectiveness of these teams, they are a promising practice (Greeson & Campbell, 2013). Likewise, intimate partner/domestic violence fatality review teams review cases of intimate partner homicide with a public health approach. As with sexual assault response teams, there are little data on the effectiveness of these teams that have also been labeled a promising practice (Wilson & Websdale, 2006).

Child Maltreatment

Child maltreatment includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as neglect. Actual prevalence of maltreatment is unknown, but there are more than 3 million referrals for more than 6 million children to child protective agencies annually, with nearly a quarter of these cases substantiated. An estimated 1570 children nationally died from abuse or neglect in 2011 (Administration on Children, Youth, and Families Children’s Bureau, 2011U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2011), a number that is believed to be undercounted. The estimated annual cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States for 2008 was $124 billion (Fang et al. 2012). Child maltreatment results in lifelong adverse physical and mental health consequences such as posttraumatic stress disorder, increased risk of chronic disease, lasting impacts or disability from physical injury, and reduced health-related quality of life (Corso et al. 2008).

State and Federal Policies Related to Child Maltreatment

Because minors are considered to need additional protection as a result of their age, states not only have laws making the acts of abuse and neglect criminal offenses but also have laws requiring that certain adults must report suspected maltreatment to appropriate authorities. In some states, all adults are mandated reporters. In most states, specific professionals, teachers, health care professionals, social workers, law enforcement personnel, and others are mandated reporters (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2011). At the federal level, the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) provides funding to states to support prevention, assessment, investigation, prosecution, and treatment activities related to child maltreatment and funding for research activities (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 20112013).

Health Policies Related to Child Maltreatment

Children’s Advocacy Centers coordinate investigation and intervention services for maltreated children by bringing together social work, legal, health care, and other professionals and agencies in a multidisciplinary team to create a child-focused approach to child abuse cases. Home visitation is another strategy that shows promise for improving child health and preventing child maltreatment (Avellar & Supplee, 2013).

Older Adult Maltreatment

Best estimates indicate that 1 to 2 million Americans over the age of 65 years are abused, neglected, or exploited, most often by caregivers (National Center on Elder Abuse, 2005). Precise numbers are not available, attributable to differences in definitions of abuse, lack of a comprehensive national data system, and different state system reporting and data collection. Further, only a small fraction of abuse comes to the attention of Adult Protective Services (Dong & Simon, 2011). The U.S. aging population is rapidly increasing with projections for individuals 65 years and older to increase from 40.2 million in 2010 to 54.8 million in 2020 and to 72.1 million in 2030 (Dong & Simon, 2011). Legislation has been effective in bringing about reform.

State and Federal Legislation Related to Older Adult Maltreatment

As with child maltreatment, state laws provide for criminal charges related to the abuse of older adults (the definition of which varies from state to state, but may be as young as 55 years of age). Most (but not all) states define certain individuals as mandated reporters of abuse of older adults as well. At the federal level, the Older American Act of 2006 developed and maintains the National Center on Elder Abuse, which provides funding for prevention activities, research, data collection, and long-term planning for elder justice. The Elder Justice Act (EJA) of 2010, which was part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010), is the first comprehensive strategy to address older adult abuse, neglect, and exploitation. It is important to note that the authorized funding has not been appropriated at this time and that the EJA is set to expire in 2014. Funding for older adult maltreatment is significantly less than for other types of violence and a national database has yet to be established.

Health Care Policies Related to Older Adult Maltreatment

Recent efforts have focused on using the primary care setting to identify and respond to older adult abuse (Perel-Levin, 2008). Case management strategies can be effective in providing consistency in monitoring of adult patient and caregiver behavior (Choi & Mayer, 2000). Research on effective intervention strategies in this area lags behind that of other areas of violence and is an area where nursing can make an impact.

Opportunity for Nursing

Nurses have the skills and education to take a leadership role in addressing violence and abuse on multiple levels, as providers, researchers, policy analysts, educators, and advocates. Efforts to address violence against children, women, and older adults have met with impressive successes over the past decades. These forms of violence, seen as largely justifiable and perhaps even necessary in the past, are now recognized as both crimes and important public health problems. The evidence base for interventions to prevent these forms of violence, end them when they start, and mitigate the related health consequences is growing. It is clear, however, that we still have important gaps in our understanding of both effective violence interventions and policies. Although we work to address these gaps in knowledge, we can continue to move forward on numerous fronts. Educators should ensure that curriculums at all levels include content on violence and abuse. Given the high rates and significant health effects of violence, all nurses should have basic clinical knowledge of how to assess for, competently respond to, and appropriately refer all patients with a history of violence or abuse. Nurses can serve as powerful advocates for victims of violence, ensuring that state and federal laws meet the highest standards.

Violence and crime unite two powerful systems, health care and criminal justice, and involve multiple professionals including physicians, nurses, social services, police, lawyers, and judges. Prevention and intervention strategies require efforts at the individual, community, institutional, and public policy levels. Nurses can have a significant voice in ensuring the best possible prevention and advocacy services at the local, state, and federal levels. Nursing research and the testimony of nurses has been foundational for federal and state laws and resulting public policy related to violence.


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The Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing March 21, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 Introduction Master’s Education in Nursing and Areas of Practice Context for Nursing Practice Master’s Nursing Education Curriculum The Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing I. Background for Practice from Sciences and Humanities II. Organizational and Systems Leadership 5 6 7 9 11 III. Quality Improvement and Safety 13 IV. Translating and Integrating Scholarship into Practice 15 V. 17 Informatics and Healthcare Technologies VI. Health Policy and Advocacy 20 VII. Interprofessional Collaboration for Improving Patient and Population Health Outcomes 22 VIII. Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving Health 24 IX. Master’s-Level Nursing Practice 26 Clinical/Practice Learning Expectations for Master’s Programs 29 Summary 31 Glossary 31 1 References 40 Appendix A: Task Force on the Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing 49 Appendix B: Participants who attended Stakeholder Meetings 50 Appendix C: Schools of Nursing that Participated in the Regional Meetings or Provided Feedback 52 Appendix D: Professional Organizations that Participated in the Regional Meetings or Provided Feedback 63 Appendix E: Healthcare Systems that Participated in the Regional Meetings 64 2 The Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing March 21, 2011 The Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing reflect the profession’s continuing call for imagination, transformative thinking, and evolutionary change in graduate education. The extraordinary explosion of knowledge, expanding technologies, increasing diversity, and global health challenges produce a dynamic environment for nursing and amplify nursing’s critical contributions to health care. Master’s education prepares nurses for flexible leadership and critical action within complex, changing systems, including health, educational, and organizational systems. Master’s education equips nurses with valuable knowledge and skills to lead change, promote health, and elevate care in various roles and settings. Synergy with these Essentials, current and future healthcare reform legislation, and the action-oriented recommendations of the Initiative on the Future of Nursing (IOM, 2010) highlights the value and transforming potential of the nursing profession. Family and Sexual Violence
These Essentials are core for all master’s programs in nursing and provide the necessary curricular elements and framework, regardless of focus, major, or intended practice setting. These Essentials delineate the outcomes expected of all graduates of master’s nursing programs. These Essentials are not prescriptive directives on the design of programs. Family and Sexual Violence
Consistent with the Baccalaureate and Doctorate of Nursing Practice Essentials, this document does not address preparation for specific roles, which may change and emerge over time. These Essentials also provide guidance for master’s programs during a time when preparation for specialty advanced nursing practice is transitioning to the doctoral level. Master’s education remains a critical component of the nursing education trajectory to prepare nurses who can address the gaps resulting from growing healthcare needs. Nurses who obtain the competencies outlined in these Essentials have significant value for current and emerging roles in healthcare delivery and design through advanced nursing knowledge and higher level leadership skills for improving health outcomes. For some nurses, master’s education equips them with a fulfilling lifetime expression of their mastery area. For others, this core is a graduate foundation for doctoral education. Each preparation is valued. Introduction The dynamic nature of the healthcare delivery system underscores the need for the nursing profession to look to the future and anticipate the healthcare needs for which nurses must be prepared to address. Family and Sexual Violence
The complexities of health and nursing care today make expanded nursing knowledge a necessity in contemporary care settings. The transformation of health care and nursing practice requires a new conceptualization of master’s education. Master’s education must prepare the graduate to: • Lead change to improve quality outcomes, 3 • Advance a culture of excellence through lifelong learning, • Build and lead collaborative interprofessional care teams, • Navigate and integrate care services across the healthcare system, • Design innovative nursing practices, and • Translate evidence into practice. Graduates of master’s degree programs in nursing are prepared with broad knowledge and practice expertise that builds and expands on baccalaureate or entry-level nursing practice. This preparation provides graduates with a fuller understanding of the discipline of nursing in order to engage in higher level practice and leadership in a variety of settings and commit to lifelong learning. Family and Sexual Violence
For those nurses seeking a terminal degree, the highest level of preparation within the discipline, the new conceptualization for master’s education will allow for seamless movement into a research or practice-focused doctoral program (AACN, 2006, 2010). The nine Essentials addressed in this document delineate the knowledge and skills that all nurses prepared in master’s nursing programs acquire. These Essentials guide the preparation of graduates for diverse areas of practice in any healthcare setting. • • • • • Essential I: Background for Practice from Sciences and Humanities o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse integrates scientific findings from nursing, biopsychosocial fields, genetics, public health, quality improvement, and organizational sciences for the continual improvement of nursing care across diverse settings. Essential II: Organizational and Systems Leadership o Recognizes that organizational and systems leadership are critical to the promotion of high quality and safe patient care. Leadership skills are needed that emphasize ethical and critical decision making, effective working relationships, and a systems-perspective. Essential III: Quality Improvement and Safety o Recognizes that a master’s-prepared nurse must be articulate in the methods, tools, performance measures, and standards related to quality, as well as prepared to apply quality principles within an organization. Essential IV: Translating and Integrating Scholarship into Practice o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse applies research outcomes within the practice setting, resolves practice problems, works as a change agent, and disseminates results. Essential V: Informatics and Healthcare Technologies 4 • • • • o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse uses patient-care technologies to deliver and enhance care and uses communication technologies to integrate and coordinate care. Essential VI: Health Policy and Advocacy o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse is able to intervene at the system level through the policy development process and to employ advocacy strategies to influence health and health care. Essential VII: Interprofessional Collaboration for Improving Patient and Population Health Outcomes o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse, as a member and leader of interprofessional teams, communicates, collaborates, and consults with other health professionals to manage and coordinate care. Essential VIII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving Health o Recognizes that the master’s-prepared nurse applies and integrates broad, organizational, client-centered, and culturally appropriate concepts in the planning, delivery, management, and evaluation of evidence-based clinical prevention and population care and services to individuals, families, and aggregates/identified populations.
Essential IX: Master’s-Level Nursing Practice o Recognizes that nursing practice, at the master’s level, is broadly defined as any form of nursing intervention that influences healthcare outcomes for individuals, populations, or systems. Master’s-level nursing graduates must have an advanced level of understanding of nursing and relevant sciences as well as the ability to integrate this knowledge into practice. . Nursing practice interventions include both direct and indirect care components. Master’s Education in Nursing and Areas of Practice Graduates with a master’s degree in nursing are prepared for a variety of roles and areas of practice. Graduates may pursue new and innovative roles that result from health reform and changes in an evolving and global healthcare system. Some graduates will pursue direct care practice roles in a variety of settings (e.g., the Clinical Nurse Leader, nurse educator). Others may choose indirect care roles or areas of practice that focus on aggregate, systems, or have an organizational focus, (e.g. nursing or health program management, informatics, public health, or clinical research coordinator). In addition to developing competence in the nine Essential core areas delineated in this document, each graduate will have additional coursework in an area of practice or functional role. This coursework may include more in-depth preparation and competence in one or two of the Essentials or in an additional/ supplementary area of practice. For example, more concentrated coursework or further development of the knowledge and skills embedded in Essential IV (Translational Scholarship for Evidence-Based Practice) will prepare the nurse to manage research projects for nurse scientists and other 5 healthcare researchers working in multi-professional research teams. More in-depth preparation in Essential II (Organizational and System Leadership) will provide knowledge useful for nursing management roles. In some instances, graduates of master’s in nursing programs will seek to fill roles as educators. As outlined in Essential IX, all master’s-prepared nurses will develop competence in applying teaching/learning principles in work with patients and/or students across the continuum of care in a variety of settings. However, as recommended in the Carnegie Foundation report (2009), Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation, those individuals, as do all master’s graduates, who choose a nurse educator role require preparation across all nine Essential areas, including graduate-level clinical practice content and experiences. In addition, a program preparing individuals for a nurse educator role should include preparation in curriculum design and development, teaching methodologies, educational needs assessment, and learner-centered theories and methods. Master’s prepared nurses may teach patients and their families and/or student nurses, staff nurses, and variety of direct-care providers.  Family and Sexual Violence
The master’s prepared nurse educator differs from the BSN nurse in depth of his/her understanding of the nursing discipline, nursing practice, and the added pedagogical skills. To teach students, patients, and caregivers regarding health promotion, disease prevention, or disease management, the master’s-prepared nurse educator builds on baccalaureate knowledge with graduatelevel content in the areas of health assessment, physiology/pathophysiology, and pharmacology to strengthen his/her scientific background and facilitate his/her understanding of nursing and health-related information. Those master’s students who aspire to faculty roles in baccalaureate and higher degree programs will be advised that additional education at the doctoral level is needed (AACN, 2008). Family and Sexual Violence
Context for Nursing Practice Health care in the United States and globally is changing dramatically. Interest in evolving health care has prompted greater focus on health promotion and illness prevention, along with cost-effective approaches to high acuity, chronic disease management, care coordination, and long-term care. Public concerns about cost of health care, fiscal sustainability, healthcare quality, and development of sustainable solutions to healthcare problems are driving reform efforts. Attention to affordability and accessibility of health care, maintaining healthy environments, and promoting personal and community responsibility for health is growing among the public and policy makers. In addition to broad public mandates for a reformed and responsive healthcare system, a number of groups are calling for changes in the ways all health professionals are educated to meet current and projected needs for contemporary care delivery. The Institute of 6 Medicine (IOM), an interprofessional healthcare panel, described a set of core competencies that all health professionals regardless of discipline will demonstrate: 1) the provision of patient-centered care, 2) working in interprofessional teams, 3) employing evidence-based practice, 4) applying quality improvement approaches, and 5) utilizing informatics (IOM, 2003). Family and Sexual Violence
Given the ongoing public trust in nursing (Gallup, 2010), and the desire for fundamental reorganization of relationships among individuals, the public, healthcare organizations and healthcare professionals, graduate education for nurses is needed that is wide in scope and breadth, emphasizes all systems-level care and includes mastery of practice knowledge and skills. Such preparation reflects mastery of higher level thinking and conceptualization skills than at the baccalaureate level, as well as an understanding of the interrelationships among practice, ethical, and legal issues; financial concerns and comparative effectiveness; and interprofessional teamwork. Family and Sexual Violence
Master’s Nursing Education Curriculum The master’s nursing curriculum is conceptualized in Figure 1 and includes three components: 1. Graduate Nursing Core: foundational curriculum content deemed essential for all students who pursue a master’s degree in nursing regardless of the functional focus. 2. Direct Care Core: essential content to provide direct patient services at an advanced level. 3. Functional Area Content: those clinical and didactic learning experiences identified and defined by the professional nursing organizations and certification bodies for specific nursing roles or functions. This document delineates the graduate nursing core competencies for all master’s graduates. These core outcomes reflect the many changes in the healthcare system occurring over the past decade. In addition, these expected outcomes for all master’s degree graduates reflect the increasing responsibility of nursing in addressing many of the gaps in health care as well as growing patient and population needs. Master’s nursing education, as is all nursing education, is evolving to meet these needs and to prepare nurses to assume increasing accountabilities, responsibilities, and leadership positions. As master’s nursing education is re-envisioned and preparation of individuals for advanced specialty nursing practice transitions to the practice doctorate these Essentials delineate the foundational, core expectations for these master’s program graduates until the transition is completed. 7 Figure 1: Model of Master’s Nursing Curriculum * All master’s degree programs that prepare graduates for roles that have a component of direct care practice are required to have graduate level content/coursework in the following three areas: physiology/pathophysiology, health assessment, and pharmacology. However, graduates being prepared for any one of the four APRN roles (CRNA, CNM, CNS, or CNP), must complete three separate comprehensive, graduate level courses that meet the criteria delineated in the 2008 Consensus Model for APRN Licensure, Accreditation, Certification and Education. ( In addition, the expected outcomes for each of these three APRN core courses are delineated in The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice (pg. 23-24) ( + The nursing educator is a direct care role and therefore requires graduate-level content in the three Direct Care Core courses. All graduates of a master’s nursing program must have supervised practice experiences that are sufficient to demonstrate mastery of the Essentials. Family and Sexual Violence
The term “supervised” is used broadly and can include precepted experiences with faculty site visits. These learning experiences may be accomplished through diverse teaching methods, including face-to-face or simulated methods. In addition, development of clinical proficiency is facilitated through the use of focused and sustained clinical experiences designed to strengthen patient care delivery skills, as 8 well as system assessment and intervention skills, which will lead to an enhanced understanding of organizational dynamics. These immersion experiences afford the student an opportunity to focus on a population of interest or may focus on a specific role. Most often, the immersion experience occurs toward the end of the program as a culminating synthesis experience. Family and Sexual Violence
The Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing Essential I: Background for Practice from Sciences and Humanities Rationale Master’s-prepared nurses build on the competencies gained in a baccalaureate nursing program by developing a deeper understanding of nursing and the related sciences needed to fully analyze, design, implement, and evaluate nursing care. These nurses are well prepared to provide care to diverse populations and cohorts of patients in clinical and community-based systems. The master’s-prepared nurse integrates findings from the sciences and the humanities, biopsychosocial fields, genetics, public health, quality improvement, health economics, translational science, and organizational sciences for the continual improvement of nursing care at the unit, clinic, home, or program level. Master’s-prepared nursing care reflects a more sophisticated understanding of assessment, problem identification, design of interventions, and evaluation of aggregate outcomes than baccalaureate-prepared nursing care. Students being prepared for direct care roles will have graduate-level content that builds upon an undergraduate foundation in health assessment, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. Family and Sexual Violence
Having master’s-prepared graduates with a strong background in these three areas is seen as imperative from the practice perspective. It is recommended that the master’s curriculum preparing individuals for direct care roles include three separate graduate-level courses in these three content areas. In addition, the inclusion of these three separate courses facilitates the transition of these master’s program graduates into the DNP advanced-practice registered-nurse programs. Master’s-prepared nurses understand the intersection between systems science and organizational science in order to serve as integrators within and across systems of care. Care coordination is based on systems science (Nelson et al., 2008). Family and Sexual Violence
Care management incorporates an understanding of the clinical and community context, and the research relevant to the needs of the population. Nurses at this level use advanced clinical reasoning for ambiguous and uncertain clinical presentations, and incorporate concerns of family, significant others, and communities into the design and delivery of care. Master’s-prepared nurses use a variety of theories and frameworks, including nursing and ethical theories in the analysis of clinical problems, illness prevention, and health promotion strategies. Knowledge from information sciences, health communication, and health literacy are used to provide care to multiple populations. These nurses are able to 9 address complex cultural issues and design care that responds to the needs of multiple populations, who may hav Family and Sexual Violence