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Running Head: RESEACH DESIGN 1 RESEARCH DESIGN Stacey Tekansik Capella University PSL5007 Dr. Stephanie H 8/22/2019 RESEARCH DESIGN 2 Introduction While trying to wrap our heads around issues that face us on a day to day basis, we find ourselves seeking answers through a number of ways. One predominant way within which answers in the society are sought through is by conducting research. Research as an art has many aspects and elements to it and this paper narrows down to just an element of research. In this paper, research design will be discussed, and with the help of a case I have been doing in recent weeks, a specific research design will be picked and while at it, elaborated in finder designs. To be precise, this paper will narrow down on how research survey as a research design works, what it entails and while at it, the advantages it has over other related research designs that can be applied as well. Research Design Chosen: Survey Research In simple explanations and definitions, survey research entails conducting of large-scale surveys and many of which involve huge masses of respondents. The issue at hand is about nursing and what needs to be done in order to salvage the situation. What this means is that with survey research which is historically good with larger respondents, then the research will be conducted in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. This is, therefore, the simple structural and theoretical of what research survey means(Miranville, 2019). Why This was the chosen research design among many others RESEARCH DESIGN 3 This research is about nursing and areas they need to improve in order to bring the best out of their healthcare practices. In other words, this is research that would need many respondents in order to reduce the margin of error when making conclusions and deductions. With research survey as the research design, then this is made even easier. The justification for this is the fact that with a research survey, then many people will be brought on board to participate in the research. The first advantage that will be met is the increase in accuracy when doing research on the topic at hand. Another way within which this research design edges others is by its ease and the level of convenience it offers compared to other research designs. These are therefore some of the main justifications for my choice of this design over the many others that are equally functional. Other minor advantages this design has over others include the following; • A lot of information is gathered and easier to analyze themes. • This design is more flexible compared to the others. • This design is also very convenient compared to the others. • This design is economical and less technical compared to the others Data Collection Strategy It is important to mention the fact that data collection is among the foundations over which any research is bound to be built on. This, therefore, make sit an important pillar and one that needs to be taken into account when choosing a research design. In this case, the research design is research survey and the data methods and collection star6egy to be used in order to get the best out of every element, would be through questionnaires, and reading of secondary sources. Through these data collection strategies, it will RESEARCH DESIGN 4 then become easier to handle the research topic, with the help of this research design, without any unnecessary speedbumps along the way. It is also important to point out that these are not the only data collections strategies applicable under these circumstances as there are multiple other data collection strategies. Ethical and legal considerations in the proposed data collection. Just like many other pillars of research, there comes a point where there have to be legal and ethical considerations while going about the research. The data collection strategies are no exception and the proposed data collection strategies in this case, which as a reminder is the use of questionnaires, is subject to a number of ethical and legal considerations and thresholds it needs to meet as well. In this case, the ethical considerations would be to make sure that those who take part in the questionnaire do so, without any form of duress or being forced. In other words, the main ethical threshold that will have to be taken into consideration in this case would be to ascertain the consent of the respondents to the questionnaires. This is the key ethical consideration that is relevant to this data collection strategy and method. In terms of legal considerations with the proposed data collection strategy, it would be very important to make sure that each and every question in the questionnaires are not implicative in nature, and legal to say the least. This is the main legal consideration that will have to b taken care of and hence accounted for. It is also important to highlight the fact that this is not the only legal requirement that will have to be cross-checked with this data collection strategy, as there are multiple others to be considered (Fortunato et al., 2018). Conclusion RESEARCH DESIGN In conclusion, this paper has managed to paint a clear picture of how research survey, as a design in research can be instrumental in getting the work done. While at it, it has also expounded on all the relevant optics. 5 RESEARCH DESIGN 6 References Fortunato, S., Bergstrom, C. T., Börner, K., Evans, J. A., Helbing, D., Milojević, S., … Barabási, A. L. (2018). Science of science. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0185 Miranville, A. (2019). Geriatric Abuse in Nursing Homes Research Proposal
Annual Report 2018. AIMS Mathematics. https://doi.org/10.3934/math.2019.1.166 Rondo Avenue Baptist Church : Basement Maya is looking for feedback to help her choose a research design. She invites several community members to offer her feedback. White Board Problem Statement: The purpose of this study is to determine ways that the Riverbend City Police Department can improve relationships with young racial minorities by assessing the needs of youth in the community and identifying areas where the police can help address these needs. Emily Gardner-Bray, Doctoral Student If I were you, I’d consider doing an ethnographic study. Ethnography is a way of studying group practices as a cultural phenomenon. You “live among the natives,” so to speak, as a way of learning about them. In this case, you’d want to find some way to interact with young people in a space like a youth center or park. This can be kind of hard to plan, but it also can be really rewarding. You get insights into how things are really done in a way that you can’t be doing a survey or focus groups. Rob Randolph, Police Sergeant I think the easiest way for you to collect a large amount of data is through survey research. There are thousands of young racial minorities in the city. By conducting surveys, you can include as many of their voices as possible. You can also find generalizable patterns in their responses. Antonia Grimes, Pastor, Rondo Avenue Baptist Church I’m a big fan of individual interviews.
That way, you can get responses that are rich and detailed. Interviews are also a way to empower young people to express themselves and let them know that their voices matter! Back to top Research Design Selection What research design should Maya choose? There’s not a correct answer to this question. Whatever choice she makes will come with pros and cons. Click on a research design choice to learn more about the pros and cons of each choice. 1. Survey research. Feedback If Maya chooses survey research, she will be able to gather information from a large number of people and identify themes. She won’t have to worry about scheduling interviews, which is always a challenge and can be especially challenging when working with young people. On the other hand, she won’t be able to ask follow up questions, which can be very valuable. Surveys offer breadth, but not depth. 2. Individual interviews. Feedback If Maya chooses individual interviews, she will be able to get in-depth responses to her questions. Because she will be interviewing people individually, these won’t be as difficult to schedule as focus group interviews — and she won’t have to worry about the ways that group dynamics can influence focus group responses. On the other hand, individual interviews are very time consuming. Maya will only be able to speak with a limited number of people, and it will be hard to extrapolate themes from her small set of interviews. Individual interviews often depth, but not breadth. 3. Focus group interviews. Feedback If Maya conducts focus group interviews, she will be able to speak with many more people than if she conducts individual interviews — while still allowing for follow-up questions and detailed responses. Focus groups allow for a balance of breadth (like surveys) and depth (like individual interviews). Maya will also be able to observe how the participants interact with each other, which adds an element of “lived experience” like ethnography. On the other hand, focus groups can be very difficult to schedule, especially when youth are involved. In addition, group dynamics can be difficult to manage — like peer pressure, or overparticipation — and can impact the results. 4. Ethnography. Feedback If Maya chooses ethnography, she will interact with young people for a long period of time in a setting like a youth center. She will “live among the natives” and gain their trust, and write about their interactions. By doing so, she will have the potential to make first-hand, rich observations about what youths really need. On the other hand, this kind of research is very time-consuming. Researchers need to be very aware of their own biases. As a police officer doing ethnographic research with youth, Maya will have the opportunity to build strong relationship with youth — but she also might find it challenging to gain their trust. Back to top Conclusion You have completed the Choosing a Research Design activity. Learning how to write a research design is an essential skill as you learn to be an effective researcher. Keep these tips in mind as you complete your research proposal. Geriatric Abuse in Nursing Homes Research Proposal
Back to top Credits Subject Matter Expert: Amy Gangl, PhD Interactive Design: Estelle Domingos, Christopher Schons Media Instructional Design: Naomi Rockler-Gladen Instructional Design: Nancy Ackerman Project Manager: Courtney Judd Image Credit: © iStockphoto.com Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License Running Head: GERIATRIC ABUSE IN NURSING HOMES Stacey Tekansik PSL5007 Dr. Stephanie Hunziker Geriatric Abuse in Nursing Homes 7/19/2019 1 GERIATRIC ABUSE IN NURSING HOMES 2 Annotated bibliography on geriatric abuse in nursing homes Acierno, R., Steedley, M., Hernandez-Tejada, M. A., Frook, G., Watkins, J., & Muzzy, W. (2018). The relevance of Perpetrator Identity to Reporting Elder Financial and Emotional Mistreatment. Journal of Applied Gerontology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464818771208 The study was undertaken, and it showed that 5.2% older adults faced financial abuse while 4.6% faced emotional mistreatment in their elderly years. In a repeated study 8 years later it showed that 88% of the elderly population were facing financial abuse and 33% were facing emotional abuse cases that were never reported. The report concluded that it was a result of the elderly fearing to expose their abusers because they would get them in trouble through negative publicity. Andela, M., Truchot, D., & Huguenotte, V. (2018). Work Environment and Elderly Abuse in Nursing Homes: The Mediating Role of Burnout. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518803606 This study focuses on the role of nurses in nursing homes for the elderly. The study was undertaken to understand more about how caregivers promote neglect and other abusive behaviors. The study reported that emotional demands, and poor quality relationships with colleagues and supervisors were the causes of the nurse burnout that led to their abusive behaviors. GERIATRIC ABUSE IN NURSING HOMES 3 Feltner, C., & Nelson, H. (2018). Screening for intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and abuse of vulnerable adults (p. 1687). American Medical Association. This was a study taken to understand the effects of intimate partner violence on elderly people. Some of the effects included injury, death, pregnancy, STDs, health consequences such as mental health which comes with depression anxiety disorders and posttraumatic disorders some with long-term effects. The study was taken to make the U.S preventive task force to take action on the abuse of vulnerable adults. Miller E, Beach SR, Thurston RC. Addressing Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Older or Vulnerable Adults in the Health Care Setting—Beyond Screening. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178 (12):1583–1585. Geriatric Abuse in Nursing Homes Research Proposaldoi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6523 This quantitative study shows that intimate partner violence and older adult abuse is common in the United States and globally. From the survey, it was reported that one in every four women and one in every ten men have experienced physical violence, need for medical care, and sexual violence. The survey also showed that 10% of adult abuse is neglect. Ostaszkiewicz, J. (2017). A conceptual model of the risk of elder abuse posed by incontinence and care dependence. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 13(2), 382. Doi: 10.1111/opn.12182 According to the study, a factor that contributed to the nurses neglecting their elderly patients is over-dependence and incontinence of the older people. The over dependence of the elderly led to GERIATRIC ABUSE IN NURSING HOMES 4 nurse neglect and abusive behavior. The study concluded that the neglect and abusive behaviors by the nurses was unprofessional and many elderly patients continued to suffer in the hands of their caregivers. Yon, Y., Ramiro-Gonzalez, M., Mikton, C., Huber, M., & Sethi, D. (2018). The prevalence of elder abuse in institutional settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal Of Public Health, 29(1), 58-67. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cky093 According to the study that was done to get a systematic review it was found that 64.2% of older people have passed through elderly abuse. Some of the abuses they pass through are physical abuse, psychological, financial, neglect, and sexual abuse in which some have long term effect. GERIATRIC ABUSE IN NURSING HOMES 5 Reference Andela, M., Truchot, D., & Huguenotte, V. (2018). Work Environment and Elderly Abuse in Nursing Homes: The Mediating Role of Burnout. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518803606 Feltner, C., & Nelson, H. (2018). Screening for intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and abuse of vulnerable adults (p. 1687). American Medical Association. Miller E, Beach SR, Thurston RC. Addressing Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Older or Vulnerable Adults in the Health Care Setting—Beyond Screening. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(12):1583–1585. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6523 Ostaszkiewicz, J. (2017). A conceptual model of the risk of elder abuse posed by incontinence and care dependence. International Journal Of Older People Nursing, 13(2), 382. doi: 10.1111/opn.12182 Yon, Y., Mikton, C., Gassoumis, Z., & Wilber, K. (2017). Geriatric Abuse in Nursing Homes Research Proposal
Elder abuse prevalence in community settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 5(2), 147156. doi: 10.1016/s2214-109x(17)30006-2. Yon, Y., Ramiro-Gonzalez, M., Mikton, C., Huber, M., & Sethi, D. (2018). The prevalence of elder abuse in institutional settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal Of Public Health, 29(1), 58-67. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cky093 Running head: PROBLEM STATEMENT 1 Assignment 3: Problem Statement Stacey Tekansik PSL5007 Dr. Stephanie Hunziker Capella University 7/26/2019 PROBLEM STATEMENT 2 • Negligence and abuse by nurses is known (Acierno et al., 2018) • Caregivers’ negligence is known (Andela, Truchot, & Huguenotte, 2018) • Effect of intimate partner violence on older people is known (Feltner & Nelson, 2018) • Evidence of intimate partner violence and older adult abuse is known (Miller, Beach, & Thurston, 2018) • Nurses negligence of elderly patient is known (Ostaszkiewicz, 2017) • Presence of elderly abuse is known (Yon et al., 2018) • The role caregiver stress plays in promoting violence to elderly patients is not known. Problem Definition From different studies, there is no doubt that elderly patients under varying levels of negligence and abuse. In according to Pillemer, Burnes, Riffin, & Lachs (2016), mistreatment among elders is an increasing issue that has to be addressed and requires the attention from health care systems, policymakers, as well as the general public. According to a research done by World Health Organization about violence and health, the poor relationship between these elderly patients and caregivers is due to stress as the primary cause and that Alzheimer’s disease is rising to a higher level than before (World Health Organization, 2014). Many adverse effects come about as a result of the abuse among the elderly. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3 Research Questions 1. 2. What is the prevalence of risk of abuse caused by stressful caregivers? How does stress contribute to violence and negative behaviors among elderly patients? This study is unique from other studies in that it aims to understand the role stress, as a major cause of elderly abuse by caregivers in nursing homes, play in promoting abuse and negligence. Since pressure is a significant cause, it is responsible for increased cases of elderly abuse in the United States and the rest of the world. Other studies, on the other hand, have attempted to determine whether there is evidence of abuse and violence and the nature of the relationship between caregivers and elderly patients. So, there is a wide gap in the role stress has in contributing towards elderly patients in nursing homes. Results from this study can be applied in many healthcare systems, both private and public. Healthcare managers, caregivers, physicians, and family members can use strategies from this study to prevent stress associated with negative behavior and abuse that deter access and quality of healthcare to the elderly patients. Results on the risks associated with stress can help healthcare managers and healthcare policymakers in developing new models to mitigate adverse effects associated with stress during service delivery. Research skills are essential in the field of nursing and healthcare since they help researchers understand how to do what to reach expected results. Hence, this study shapes researchers’ skills to know how to research and go through a problem. In the process of achieving expected results, the research develops problem-solving skills among people, which is an essential skill in any workplace. PROBLEM STATEMENT 4 Through the recommendations from this study findings, I might develop an interest in being part of a new model that can help provide quality service to the elderly patients without any significant problem. Suitable solutions and recommendations that this study will give will offer more research gap in the field of nursing. Those who will study in this field will also be encouraged to research to provide appropriate solutions to other issues in the same field. PROBLEM STATEMENT 5 References Pillemer, K., Burnes, D., Riffin, C., & Lachs, M. S. (2016, April). Elder Abuse: Global situation, risk factors, and prevention strategies. Gerontologist, 56(2), 194–205. World Health Organization . (2014). Abuse of the elderly. WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap5.pdf : https://ww …