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Growth: Economic Analysis

Growth: Economic Analysis

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  • Overview

    In 3–4 pages, analyze economic growth and its impact on a nation, the concepts of gross investment and net investment, economic discrepancies between countries, and the factors that can result in recession and economic expansion.By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

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    Context

    Gross domestic product (GDP) is one measurement of the well-being of a nation, but it is not the only one. GDP consists of what consumers buy, what businesses buy, what the government buys, and what is either imported or exported. On the other side, everything a nation produces must be paid for, which represents the national income—wages for labor, rents for land owners, and interest or return for capital owners.Business cycles are the ups and downs of an economy, both nationally and globally. For example, we recently experienced something called the Great Recession. Many jobs were lost. This followed a period of economic growth. Global business leaders need to understand the factors that contribute to business cycles, along with how the federal government manages business cycles through the use of taxes, debt, and spending. Growth: Economic Analysis.

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    Questions to Consider

    As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

    • Why do you think macroeconomics focus on just a few key statistics when trying to understand the health and trajectory of an economy? Would it be better to try and examine all possible data?
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    Resources

    SUGGESTED RESOURCES

    The resources provided here are optional and support the assessment. They provide helpful information about the topics in this unit. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The MBA-FP6008 – Global Economic Environment Library Guide can help direct your research. The Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you. Growth: Economic Analysis.

    Macroeconomics Theory and Principles

    The following resource provides information about macroeconomics theory and principles.

    • McConnell, C., Flynn, S., & Brue, S. (2015). Macroeconomics (20th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Available from the bookstore. Growth: Economic Analysis. 
      • Chapter 6, “An Introduction to Macroeconomics,” pages 135–147.

  • Assessment Instructions

    This assessment examines national economics, economic growth, and financial crisis. The ability to analyze these topics allows global business leaders to make sound economic decisions.

    REQUIREMENTS

    There are four parts to this assessment. Be sure you have completed all four parts before submitting.

    Part 1

    Consider a nation in which the volume of goods and services is growing by 5% per year:

    • Analyze the impact of the high rate of growth on the nation.
      • Explain how the high rate of growth is likely to affect the power and influence of the nation’s government relative to other nations experiencing slower rates of growth.
      • Explain how the 5% growth is likely to affect the nation’s living standards. Growth: Economic Analysis.
        • How does economic growth affect population growth?
        • Will living standards necessarily grow by 5%, given population growth?
    Part 2
    • Use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain the differences between an economy that has a rising stock of capital and one that has a falling stock of capital.
    • Explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero, even though net investment can be positive, negative, or zero. What real world examples can you provide?
    Part 3
    • Analyze the economic discrepancies between countries.
      • Explain why some countries today are much poorer than other countries.
      • Based on what you know and have learned about macroeconomic principles, are today’s poorer countries destined to always be poorer than today’s wealthy countries?
        • If so, explain why. Growth: Economic Analysis.
        • If not, explain how today’s poorer countries can catch up to or even surpass today’s wealthy countries.
    Part 4
    • Explain how, in general, a financial crisis can lead to a recession.
    • Explain how, in general, a major new invention can lead to an economic expansion.

    Organize your assessment logically with appropriate headings and subheadings. Support your work with at least 3 scholarly or professional resources and follow APA guidelines for your citations and references. Be sure you include a title page and reference page. Growth: Economic Analysis.

    ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

    • Include a title page and reference page.
    • Number of pages: 3–4, not including title page and reference page.
    • Number of resources: At least 3 scholarly or professional resources.
    • APA format for citations and references.
    • Font and spacing: Times New Roman, 12 point; double-spaced. Growth: Economic Analysis.

    Growth: Economic Analysis 2 Scoring Guide

    CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED
    Analyze the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation. Does not analyze the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation. Describes the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation. Analyzes the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation. Analyzes the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation; includes an examination of the challenges the nation will face due to the high rate of growth.
    Use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences in specific economies. Does not use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences in specific economies. Uses the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences in specific economies, but the explanation shows a lack of clear understanding of the concepts. Uses the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences in specific economies. Uses the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences and similarities in specific economies.
    Explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero. Does not explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero. Explains how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero but the explanation is missing key elements or is unsupported. Explains how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero. Explains how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero. Supports explanation with relevant evidence and/or real world examples.
    Analyze the economic discrepancies between countries. Does not analyze the economic discrepancies between countries. Lists the economic discrepancies between countries. Analyzes the economic discrepancies between countries. Analyzes the economic discrepancies between countries using relevant macroeconomic theories or models to support analysis.
    Explain how a financial crisis can lead to a recession. Does not explain how a financial crisis can lead to a recession. Explains how a financial crisis can lead to a recession but the explanation is missing key elements or is unsupported. Explains how a financial crisis can lead to a recession. Explains how a financial crisis can lead to a recession; supports the explanation with real world examples.
    Explain how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion. Does not explain how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion. Explains how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion but the explanation is missing key elements or is unsupported. Explains how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion. Explains how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion; supports the explanation with real world examples.

 

unning head: GROWTH 1 Growth Suchayita Mukherjee Capella University Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. GROWTH 2 Defining Economic Growth The rate of economic growth and development of a country is a good measure of its economic health. The economic growth of a country is defined as a sustained increase in the volume of goods and services produced in the country. It can also be measured in terms of the increase in the gross domestic product (GDP) of a country. “GDP is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given time period” (Mankiw, 2012, p. 496). Growth: Economic Analysis.
Impact of Economic Growth If the volume of goods and services of a country increases by 5%, the economic growth rate of country can be said to be 5%. A high rate of economic growth, for example, 5%, promotes capital formation by allowing investments in land, new machines, power, transportation facilities, and so on. An increase in the stock of capital is likely to increase the capital per worker, which will result in an increase in labor productivity. This further increases economic growth (Mankiw, 2012). Economic growth also helps improve the quality of human capital by allowing investment in education and training. It can also lead to technological development, which involves both process innovation and product innovation. When growing at a fast rate, a country can increase its spending on research and development, further boosting technological advancement. If the level of output of a country grows at a high rate, there is a boost in business confidence and foreign investors are encouraged to invest in the country. A country can participate in and gain from regional and international trade. This often increases the bargaining power of the country in various global economic forums. Developed countries are significant contributors to world trade and are therefore major players in the International Monetary Fund, Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. GROWTH 3 the World Bank, and other global forums. Developed countries also attract multinational companies, and most multinational companies have their head offices in developed countries. The governments of developed countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany, have greater economic power than the governments of underdeveloped countries, such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and so on. An increase in the volume of goods and services produced implies an increase in production and employment opportunities, thereby reducing the unemployment rate in a country and increasing the average income of its citizens. If a wide variety of goods and services are produced, consumers can benefit from economic growth as they can choose from a large basket of goods and services. A high rate of economic growth has other benefits for countries. As tax revenue tends to increase with economic growth, governments need to borrow less from both internal and external sources. A reduction in government borrowing can lower the debt to GDP ratio. The governments of high-growth countries can also invest in pollution-control measures, leading to a cleaner environment. They can also undertake the large-scale provision of public goods and services. If economic growth is accompanied by an improvement in the quality of life, literacy rates, mortality rates, and life expectancy at birth, a country can enjoy a high level of economic development as well, as measured by the Human Development Index (“Human development index,” n.d.). Growth: Economic Analysis.
An increase in the rate of economic growth of a country can be accompanied by an increase in the rate of population growth. Economic Growth and Population Growth Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. Comment [N1]: Your points about the impact of economic growth were well taken. Growth: Economic Analysis.
GROWTH 4 An increase in the size of a country’s population means an increase in the size of its workforce and therefore an increase in the production of goods and services. Simultaneously, a high level of economic growth can lead to an improvement in healthcare facilities, an increase in life expectancy, and a decrease in infant mortality rates, leading to an increase in the growth rate of the population. Economic growth may lead to an increase in the volume and variety of products and an improvement in their quality. This may lead to an improvement in a country’s standards of living. However, if the rate of growth of population equals or exceeds the rate of economic growth, per capita income will not increase. If per capital income does not increase, the standards of living may not necessarily increase. If the rate of economic growth of a country is 5% and the rate of population growth is more than 5%, per capita GDP may not increase by 5%. To sustain a high rate of economic growth, a country needs to maintain a high level of investment. The Role of Gross and Net Investment in Economic Growth One of the factors that can stimulate economic growth is the amount of net investment in a country. Net investment represents the actual amount of investment in a country and takes into account the depreciation of existing equipment. On the other hand, gross investment includes the total amount of investment in the country during a year. Growth: Economic Analysis.
Therefore, net investment equals the difference between gross investment and depreciation. An increase in a country’s stock of capital indicates that net investment is greater than zero. By contrast, when net investment is less than zero, the stock of capital in the country decreases. As expenditure cannot be negative, the total actual spending on capital goods by a country can be zero but not negative. Therefore, gross investment, which represents the total Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. Comment [N2]: Does not explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero. You have to clarify specifically why it is impossible to have gross investment to be less than zero. GROWTH 5 amount of spending on capital goods, cannot be negative. Moreover, gross investment does not take into account depreciation and therefore cannot be negative. Although gross investment can decline to zero, this is unlikely. For gross investment to be zero, all firms in the economy should have zero gross investment, which is improbable. Gross investment in countries like Libya, Yemen, and Somalia is very low but not negative. For example, the level of investment as a percentage of GDP in Yemen was 2% in 2015 (The World Bank, 2015). Even though the level of investment in Yemen as a percentage of GDP has declined over the years, it continues to be positive. Gross investment can decline even in developed countries during a recession or financial crisis. For example, in Greece, capital investment as a percentage of GDP declined from 17.05% in 2010 to 11.48% in 2013 during the debt crisis (“Compare countries using data from official sources,”, n.d.). Net investment is negative when existing capital stock depreciates at a faster rate than it is replaced. In other words, when depreciation exceeds gross investment, the values of all capital goods in a country decline. Net investment is positive when gross investment exceeds depreciation, indicating an increase in productive capacity. Differences in net and gross investment can lead to substantial differences between countries in terms of total capital formation, the rate of economic growth, standards of living, and so on. The percentage of gross investment is higher in developed countries than in less developed countries. For example, gross capital formation in Argentina as a percentage of GDP decreased from 21% in 1966 to 17% in 2015, resulting in a growth rate of 2.4%. This was one of the reasons why its growth rate decreased from 5.4% in 1966 to 2.4% in 2015 (The World Bank, 2015). Growth: Economic Analysis.
On the other hand, a significant increase in gross investment in some countries has contributed to their economic growth. For example, gross capital formation in Indonesia as a Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. GROWTH 6 percentage of GDP increased from 6% in 1966 to 35% in 2015, resulting in an increase in its growth rate (The World Bank, 2015). Some developed countries like Japan witnessed only a slight increase in capital investment as a percentage of GDP from 19.82% in 2010 to 21.13% in 2013, leading to only a slight increase in GDP over this time period (“Compare countries using data from official sources,”, n.d.). Countries with high levels of investment experience high growth rates. For example, capital investment in China as a percentage of GDP was 46% in 2015 and its growth rate was 6.9% in 2015. Similarly, capital investment in India as a percentage of GDP was 32% in 2015 and its growth rate was 7.6% during the same period (The World Bank, 2015). Growth: Economic Analysis.
Investment in research and technology can lead to the generation of new ideas and improvements in the methods of production. Like investment, innovation plays a major role in the economic growth of a country. Role of Invention in Economic Growth According to Paul Krugman, “a country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise its output per worker” (1997, p. 11). Most countries do not have an extensive reserve of mineral wealth or oil. Therefore, the only viable way for these countries to become rich is by getting more output from the same number of inputs. Innovation is one way through which productivity can be increased (Reamer, 2014). There have been instances where inventions have led to large-scale economic expansion. For example, during the First Industrial Revolution, the invention of power looms made the production of high-quality cloth cheap. The British textile industry was the first industry to reap the benefits of this change. There was major growth in the British textile industry and, eventually, the British economy as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Growth: Economic Analysis.
Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. Comment [N3]: Uses the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences and similarities in specific economies. Well done GROWTH 7 The last quarter of the 20th century saw the commencement of the information and computer technology (ICT) revolution. There was an explosion of new discoveries and inventions, causing such profound changes that some termed this phase of industrialization the Second Industrial Revolution (Reamer, 2014). Growth: Economic Analysis.
In the 20th century, the United States was responsible for the development of new technology such as the internal combustion engine, electricity, aviation, integrated circuits, and transistors. Since then, new inventions have propelled economic growth, making the United States the world’s largest economy. While some countries have attained a high rate of economic growth because of inventions and improvements in technology, some countries have lagged behind because of several factors. Factors that Restrict Economic Growth There are several factors that can cause economic discrepancies among countries. One of them is labor productivity. Labor productivity depends not only on the quality of labor but also on the amount of capital, natural resources, and other inputs that are used with labor. Low per capita income in poor countries makes investment in human and physical capital difficult, keeping labor productivity low. The lack of education prevents the proper use of technology and often leads to the underemployment of labor in poor countries. Some countries have an abundant supply of natural resources. The Middle Eastern countries of Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates have huge oil reserves and are classified as high-income countries. On the other hand, many developing countries such as Chad and Ethiopia have a limited stock of natural resources, which acts as a constraint on economic growth. The absence of a well-developed and efficient financial system can also act as a hindrance to economic growth in poor countries. When financial institutions fail to serve as Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. Comment [N4]: Explains how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion; supports the explanation with real world examples Good points. GROWTH 8 intermediaries between suppliers and borrowers, the lack of funds for investment becomes a hindrance to economic growth. Some developing countries have serious deficiencies in their physical infrastructure. Growth: Economic Analysis.
Deficiencies in transportation, communication, sanitation, and electricity can restrict a country’s growth. “Perhaps the most elusive ingredients for development are the formal and informal institutions that promote production and exchange: the laws, customs, conventions, and other institutional elements that sustain an economy” (McEachern, 2016, p. 431). A stable political environment with well-defined property rights is also necessary for economic growth. International trade patterns can also stifle growth. Less developed countries export primary products, such as agricultural goods and other raw materials, and the prices of these primary products fluctuate more widely than those of finished goods. When faced with a trade deficit, poor countries restrict the import of capital goods, which are required for long-term growth. Less developed countries also face trade restrictions imposed by developed countries, such as tariffs and quotas. For example, the United States strictly limits sugar imports and this can affect the less developed countries that export sugar. Economic Growth and Convergence Different countries grow at different rates. Despite this variation, less developed countries can catch up with developed countries in terms of the growth rate. The convergence theory states that “developing countries can grow faster than advanced ones and should eventually close the gap” (McEachern, 2014, p. 419). This is because developing countries can adopt the modern technology used by developed countries and grow at a fast rate. On the other hand, developed countries need breakthroughs and innovative ideas to grow at a fast rate. Strict patent and copyright laws are likely to promote innovation, but might make it difficult to Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. GROWTH 9 improve production processes. Therefore, strict intellectual property rights could be counterproductive and slow down growth in an economy. The law of diminishing returns to capital states that as the stock of capital increases, the extra output produced from an additional unit of capital falls. Diminishing returns to capital also help in “making it easier for a country to grow fast if it starts out relatively poor” (Mankiw, 2012, p. 541). Growth: Economic Analysis.
In poor countries, workers lack even the most rudimentary tools and, as a result, have low productivity. Small amounts of capital investment can raise the workers’ productivity substantially. By contrast, as capital per worker is already very high in developed countries, additional capital investment has a relatively small impact on labor productivity. “The newly industrialized Asian economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan, by adopting the latest technology and investing in human resources, have closed the gap with the world leaders” (McEachern, 2016, p. 440). Between 1960 and 1990, the United States and South Korea devoted a similar share of GDP to investment. Yet, over this time period, the United States experienced a growth rate of only 2%, while South Korea experienced a growth rate of more than 6%. This shows that developing countries may be able to close the gap with developed countries. However, both developing countries and developed countries face certain challenges to attaining and maintaining high levels of growth. Challenges of High Economic Growth One of the challenges faced by countries with high rates of economic growth is sustainable development. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (“Sustainable Development,”, n.d., para.2). According to the United Nations Department of Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. Comment [N5]: Uses the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences and similarities in specific economies. Growth: Economic Analysis.
Good points GROWTH 10 Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), “over the past years, the global challenges to sustainable development have been driven by a broad set of “megatrends,”, such as changing demographic profiles, changing economic and social dynamics, advancements in technology and trends towards environmental deterioration” (p. vi). UN DESA also pointed out that “the impact of climate change threatens to escalate in the absence of adequate safeguards and there is a need to promote the integrated and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems and take mitigation and adaptation action in keeping with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities” (p. vi). The distribution of income and the types of goods produced are some of the factors that need to be addressed by countries that have a high growth rate. Developed countries also face other issues like financial crises and recessions. Financial Crisis and Recession The financial crisis that rocked the United States of America in 2007 led to the Great Recession of 2008. In mid-2013, the Federal Reserve adopted expansionary monetary policy, lowering short-term interest rates to a historic low of 1 percent (Labonte, 2016). This increased the demand for housing and led to sharp increases in housing prices. The financial crisis occurred mainly because banks created huge amounts of money by giving mortgage loans (Amadeo, 2016). Growth: Economic Analysis.
The money that was created led to inflated housing prices and speculation in financial markets. As debt started rising faster than income, people were unable to repay the loans, resulting in the banks becoming bankrupt. Once the banks limited their lending and prices began to drop in 2006, borrowers had to sell their assets in order to repay their loans. This caused a drop in housing prices, and the housing bubble burst. With home prices falling, fewer houses were built, meaning fewer jobs in residential construction, furnishings, and other industries that Copyright © 2016 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document is prohibited. GROWTH 11 relied on the housing sector. As a result, banks reduced lending even further. Thus, a downward spiral began and the economy went into recession. Fears about the effect of rising home foreclosures on the banking system led to a fullscale global financial panic in September 2008, triggering the collapse of Lehman Brothers, a Wall Street investment bank. Consumers reduced their spending in the face of sliding home prices, mounting job losses, and a collapsing stock market. This led to the recession of 2008 (Amadeo, 2016). Comment [N6]: Your points were well taken. Conclusion Economic growth plays an important role in reducing the poverty and unemployment in a country. The rate of economic growth of a country depends on the level of gross investment and net investment in the country. Innovation also plays a major role in the economic growth of a country. The rate of growth varies between different countries. However, adopting modern technology can help developing countries catch up with developed countries. Achieving high ra …