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Improvement Plan Tool Kit Quality of Care and Patient Safety Paper

 Improvement Plan Tool Kit Quality of Care and Patient Safety Paper

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For this assessment, you will develop a Word document or an online resource repository of at least 12 annotated professional or scholarly resources that you consider critical for the audience of your safety improvement plan, pertaining to medication administration, to understand or implement to ensure the success of the plan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enhancing Quality and Safety

Andhony Rivera

Capella University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enhancing Quality and Safety

Introduction

People seek medical attention in hospitals and other healthcare facilities as they know that they are safe there and cannot experience any harm. Hospitals and healthcare professionals have the mandate of ensuring the safety of the patients at all costs. According to the World Health Organization (2017), patient safety is a fundamental aspect of healthcare. Any event that impacts the quality of care and safety of the patients can have very serious and costly consequences for both healthcare facilities and patients. Medication errors are among the most preventable cause of death in the US. According to Cloete (2015), they are also one of the most common causes of unintended harm to patients in healthcare facilities. There are various causes of medication errors and they all contribute towards making a healthcare facility an unsafe environment for patients. Therefore, it is imperative that healthcare institutions identify the probable causes of medication errors and implement an effective quality improvement plan.

Causes of Medication Errors

There are various causes of medication errors in a healthcare facility. They include things like exhaustion on the part if the healthcare professionals. According to Majeed (2017), there is a shortage of healthcare professionals in the US and that number is set to grow over the coming years. Shortage of healthcare workers have various impacts on healthcare delivery and the quality of care within a healthcare facility. For instance, such a shortage would result in a large number of patient that very few healthcare workers would have to attend to at any given time. This would overburden and exhaust the workers as they would have to work multiple shifts or long hours. As a result, they would be prone to making mistakes during the administration of medication as they might read the wrong things, fail to examine the medical history of the patients, and might also fail to assess the effect that the medication might have on the patients and the reaction. Administering medication is a very sensitive process that requires the utmost competence and concentration as any mistake can have dire consequences and can even cost the life of the patient.

Medication errors can also occur when the healthcare professionals do not observe the various safety protocols and systems in place to ensure that they do the right thing. One safety protocol in place is the five rights of medication administration. According to Blignaut et al. (2017), these five rights includes administering the right medication, in the right dose, to the right patient, at the right time through the right route. Many of the medication errors that occur usually involve the administration of the wrong dosage among other things.

As earlier stated, system level failures like shortages in healthcare workers and even things like poor management, and poor equipment design can also result in medication errors. Communication plays a major role in healthcare facilities as it allows various healthcare professionals to assist in the management of a patient. Any gaps in the system of communication can result in medication errors.

Evidence-Based and Best Practice Solutions

There are various strategies that can improve patient safety and help reduce medication errors. These strategies include things like having adequate healthcare staffs in the healthcare facilities. Adequate staffing will help achieve economic and clinical improvement when it comes to patient care as it would enhance patient satisfaction and serve to decrease and even prevent medication errors. Marznaki et al. (2020) lists understaffing as one of the various causes of medication errors. Sufficient staffing can improve workflows, reduce burnout, workload, and turnover rates.

Another strategy is to implement the use of information technology systems that will serve to reduce medication errors. These technology systems include the use of Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems and Automated Medication Dispensing Systems among other things. According to Risor et al. (2016), automated technologies are an effective strategy of reducing medication error rates. These technologies have various capabilities such as packing medication in multidose or unit dose bags for various individual patients among other things.

Effective medication reconciliation in healthcare settings during transfer and discharge of patients, admission can help reduce medication errors. Errors can occur during these processes and failure to reconcile the processes can lead to miscommunication and increased risks. According to Rose et al. (2017), medication reconciliation is a significant focus of quality measurement activities. The Joint Commission has provisions that require healthcare professionals to reconcile the medication of the patients at each visit.

Stakeholders

Patient safety is paramount when it comes to healthcare delivery in healthcare facilities. Each healthcare professional has a vital role to play in ensuring the overall safety of the patients while in healthcare facilities. The nurse is the primary person when it comes to the delivery of healthcare. They are with the patients at every process and stage of healthcare and thus play an important role in driving quality improvement initiatives. The nurses collaborate with other healthcare professionals in the delivery of quality and patient centered care. Nursing educators, healthcare administrators, and other professional associations work together with nurses to provide the nurses with the various resources that they require to ensure patient safety and quality of care. The stakeholders involved in patient safety therefore include society in general, patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare administrators, nurse educators, and professional associations.

Conclusion

Hospitals and healthcare professionals have the mandate of ensuring the safety of the patients at all costs. Patient safety is a fundamental aspect of healthcare. Medication errors are among the most preventable cause of death in the US. There are various causes of medication errors in a healthcare facility. There are various strategies that can improve patient safety and help reduce medication errors. There are various strategies that can improve patient safety and help reduce medication errors. These strategies include things like having adequate healthcare staffs in the healthcare facilities. Each healthcare professional has a vital role to play in ensuring the overall safety of the patients while in healthcare facilities. The stakeholders involved in patient safety therefore include society in general, patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare administrators, nurse educators, and professional associations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Blignaut, A. J., Coetzee, S. K., Klopper, H. C., & Ellis, S. M. (2017). Medication administration errors and related deviations from safe practice: an observational study. Journal of clinical nursing, 26(21-22), 3610-3623.

Cloete, L. (2015). Reducing medication errors in nursing practice. Cancer Nursing Practice, 14(1).

Majeed, A. (2017). Shortage of general practitioners in the NHS.

Marznaki, Z. H., Pouy, S., Salisu, W. J., & Zeydi, A. E. (2020). Medication errors among Iranian emergency nurses: A systematic review. Epidemiology and Health, 42.

Risør, B. W., Lisby, M., & Sørensen, J. (2016). An automated medication system reduces errors in the medication administration process: results from a Danish hospital study. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 23(4), 189-196.

Rose, A. J., Fischer, S. H., & Paasche-Orlow, M. K. (2017). Beyond medication reconciliation: the correct medication list. Jama, 317(20), 2057-2058.

World Health Organization. (2017). Patient safety: making health care safer (No. WHO/HIS/SDS/2017.11). World Health Organization.

The instructional and sample text in this template is informational. After reading the information, please delete it, and use the document as a template for your own paper. To keep the correct format, edit the running head, cover page, headings, and reference list with your own information, and add your own body text. Save this template in a file for future use and information.

 

The running head is an abbreviated title of the paper. The running head is located at the top of pages of a manuscript or published article to identify the article for readers. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. The words “Running head” are on the cover page but not on the rest of the document. The running head title is all capital letters. Page 1 begins on the cover page. The entire document should be double-spaced, have 1-inch margins on all sides, and use 12 point Times New Roman font.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Full Title of Paper

Learner’s Full Name

Course Title

Assignment Title

Capella University

Month, Year

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract (As this section is optional, check with your instructor.)

An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of a paper. It allows readers to quickly review the key elements of a paper without having to read the entire document. This can be helpful for readers who are searching for specific information and may be reviewing many documents. The abstract may be one of the most important paragraphs in a paper because readers often decide if they will read the document based on information in the abstract. An abstract may not be required in some academic papers; however, it can still be an effective method of gaining the reader’s attention. For example, an abstract will not be required for Capella’s first course, PSYC3002. The following sentences serve as an example of what could be composed as an abstract for this paper: The basic elements of APA style will be reviewed, including formatting of an APA style paper, in-text citations, and a reference list. Additional information will address the components of an introduction, how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and elements of a summary and conclusion section of a paper.

APA Style Paper Template: A Resource for Academic Writing

Please change the titles in this document to fit your paper.

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. APA style is used when writing papers in the psychology programs offered at Capella University. This document serves as an APA style template for learners to use when writing their own papers, as well as a resource containing valuable information that can be used when writing academic papers. For more information on APA style, learners can refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010a).

The author demonstrates in the first section of this paper how an introduction effectively introduces the reader to the topic of the paper. In APA style, an introduction never gets a heading. For example, this section did not begin with a heading titled “Introduction,” similar to the following section, which is titled “Writing an Effective Introduction.” The following section will explain in greater detail a model that can be used to effectively write an introduction in an academic paper. The remaining sections of the paper will continue to address APA style and effective writing concepts including section headings, organizing information, the MEAL plan, the conclusion, and the reference list.

Writing an Effective Introduction

An effective introduction often consists of four main components including (a) the position statement, thesis, or hypothesis, which describes the author’s main position; (b) the purpose, which outlines the objective of the paper; (c) the background, which is general information that is needed to understand the content of the paper; and (d) the approach, which is the process or methodology the author uses to achieve the purpose of the paper. This information will help readers understand what will be discussed in the paper. It can also serve as a tool to grab the reader’s attention. Authors may choose to briefly reference sources that will be identified later on in the paper as in this example (American Psychological Association, 2010a; American Psychological Association, 2010b; Walker, 2008).

In an introduction, the writer will often present something of interest to capture the reader’s attention and introduce the issue. Adding an obvious statement of purpose helps the reader know what to expect, while helping the writer to focus and stay on task. For example, this paper will address several components necessary to effectively write an academic paper including (a) how to write an introduction, (b) how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and (c) how to properly use APA style.

Level One Section Heading is Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase

Using section headings can be an effective method of organizing an academic paper. The section headings should not be confused with the running head, which is a different concept described in the cover page of this document. Section headings are not required according to APA style; however, they can significantly improve the quality of a paper. This is accomplished because section headings help both the reader and the author.

Level Two Section Heading is Flush Left, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase

The heading style recommended by APA consists of five levels (American Psychological Association, 2010a, p. 62). This document contains two levels to demonstrate how headings are structured according to APA style. Immediately before the previous paragraph, a Level 1 heading was used. That section heading describes how a Level 1 heading should be written, which is centered, bold, and using uppercase and lowercase letters. For another example, see the section heading “Writing an Effective Introduction” on page 3 of this document. The heading is centered, bold, and uses uppercase and lowercase letters (compared to all uppercase in the running head at the top of each page). If used properly, section headings can significantly contribute to the quality of a paper by helping the reader who wants to understand the information in the document, and the author who desires to effectively describe the information in the document.

Section Headings Help the Reader

Section headings serve multiple purposes including (a) helping readers understand what is being addressed in each section, (b) breaking up text to help readers maintain an interest in the paper, and (c) helping readers choose what they want to read. For example, if the reader of this document wants to learn more about writing an effective introduction, the previous section heading clearly states that is where information can be found. When subtopics are needed to explain concepts in greater detail, different levels of headings are used according to APA style.

Section Headings Help the Author

Section headings do not only help the reader, they help the author organize the document during the writing process. Section headings can be used to arrange topics in a logical order, and they can help an author manage the length of the paper. In addition to an effective introduction and the use of section headings, each paragraph of an academic paper can be written in a manner that helps the reader stay engaged. Capella University promotes the use of the MEAL plan to serve this purpose.

The MEAL Plan

The MEAL plan is a model used by Capella University to help learners effectively compose academic discussions and papers. Each component of the MEAL plan is critical to writing an effective paragraph. The acronym MEAL is based on four components of a paragraph (M = Main point, E = Evidence or Example, A = Analysis, and L = Link). The following section includes a detailed description and examples of each component of the MEAL plan.

When writing the content sections of an academic paper (as opposed to the introduction or conclusion sections), the MEAL plan can be an effective model for designing each paragraph. A paragraph begins with a description of the main point, which is represented by the letter “M” of the MEAL plan. For example, the first sentence of this paragraph clearly states the main point is a discussion of the MEAL plan. Once the main point has been made, evidence and examples can be provided.

The second component of a paragraph contains evidence or examples, which is represented by the letter “E” in the MEAL plan. An example of this component of the MEAL plan is actually (and ironically) this sentence, which provides an example of an example. Evidence can be in the form of expert opinions from research. For example, evidence shows that plagiarism can occur even when it is not intended if sources are not properly cited (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997; Walker, 2008). The previous sentence provides evidence supporting why evidence is used in a paragraph.

Analysis, which is represented by the letter “A” of the MEAL plan, should be based on the author’s interpretation of the evidence. An effective analysis might include a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments, as well as the author’s interpretations of the evidence and examples. If a quote is used, the author will likely provide an analysis of the quote and the specific point it makes for the author’s position. Without an analysis, the reader might not understand why the author discussed the information that the reader just read. For example, the previous sentence was an analysis by the author of why an analysis is performed when writing paragraphs in academic papers.

Even with the first three elements of the MEAL plan, it would not be complete without the final component. The letter “L” of the MEAL plan refers to information that “links” the current and the subsequent paragraphs. The link helps the reader understand what will be discussed in the next paragraph. It summarizes the author’s reasoning and shows how the paragraph fits together and leads (that is, links) into the next section of the paper. For example, this sentence might explain that once the MEAL plan has been effectively used when writing the body of an academic paper, the final section is the summary and conclusion section.

Summary and Conclusion

A summary and conclusion section, which can also be the discussion section of an APA style paper, is the final opportunity for the author to make a lasting impression on the reader. The author can begin by restating opinions or positions and summarizing the most important points that have been presented in the paper. For example, this paper was written to demonstrate to readers how to effectively use APA style when writing academic papers. Various components of an APA style paper that were discussed or displayed in the form of examples include a running head, title page, introduction section, levels of section headings and their use, in-text citations, the MEAL plan, a conclusion, and the reference list. Improvement Plan Tool Kit Quality of Care and Patient Safety Paper.

 

 

References

American Psychological Association. (2010a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2010b). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Marsh, R. L., Landau, J. D., & Hicks, J. L. (1997). Contributions of inadequate source

monitoring to unconscious plagiarism during idea generation. Journal of Experimental       Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(4), 886–897. doi: 10.1037/0278-       7393.23.4.886

Walker, A. L. (2008). Preventing unintentional plagiarism: A method for strengthening

paraphrasing skills. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(4), 387–395. Retrieved from             http://search.proquest.com/docview/213904438?accountid=27965

Always begin a reference list on a new page. Use a hanging indent after the first line of each reference. The reference list is in alphabetical order by first author’s last name. A reference list only contains sources that are cited in the body of the paper, and all sources cited in the body of the paper must be contained in the reference list. Improvement Plan Tool Kit Quality of Care and Patient Safety Paper.

 

The reference list above contains an example of how to cite a source when two documents are written in the same year by the same author. The year is also displayed using this method for the corresponding in-text citations as in the next sentence. The author of the first citation (American Psychological Association, 2010a) is also the publisher, therefore, the word “Author” is used in place of the publisher’s name. Improvement Plan Tool Kit Quality of Care and Patient Safety Paper.

 

When a digital object identifier (DOI) is available for a journal article, it should be placed at the end of the citation. If a DOI is not available, a uniform resource locator (URL) should be used. The Marsh, Landau, and Hicks (1997) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a DOI. The Walker (2008) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a URL.