Week 4 Project
Your “Application of Theoretical Concepts to Research” Paper is due this week. Your paper should contain the following sections: NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment
- Background: contains two subsections, which includes a brief description of the theorist and the phenomenon of concern in the theory.
- Theory Description: a description of each of the concepts in the theory, a diagram of the theory, and a description of how the concepts are related.
- An Evaluation of the Theory: a description of the theory’s weaknesses and how the metaparadigms are described in the theory.
- Application of the Theory:
- Describe two studies that used the theory as a framework for their study, including a description of how they operationalized the concepts.
- How could you use the theory to research a phenomenon in your area of clinical practice? How would you operationalize the concepts?
You MUST use the attached template here to complete your paper.
The paper is to be thoroughly researched and well documented, with relevant material from the nursing theorists presented incorporated into the paper. Use the current edition of the APA Manual throughout the paper. Sources should focus on references from nursing theory but may also include conceptual and theoretical material from other professional domains. The paper, excluding references or appendices, is to be limited to 3-5 pages. Writing should be succinct and well organized, as it is impossible for the facilitator to evaluate form and content separately.
- Save your document as W4_Project_NSG5002_Lastname_Firstname.
- Submit your document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.
Grand Theories – NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment
Theories can be classified based on their levels of abstraction. The scope of grand theories is very broad and, therefore, they don’t lend themselves easily to application and testing. Grand theories are less abstract than conceptual models, but the concepts that compose them are still relatively abstract and general, and the relationships cannot be tested empirically (Fawcett, 1995)1.
Let’s begin our exploration of grand theories with Sr. Callista Roy’s adaptation model. The principal premise behind this model is that individuals are adaptive systems that cope with change through adaptation, and nursing helps to facilitate this adaptation of individuals during health and illness.
Middle Range Theories
Middle-range theories originate from grand theories. They are less abstract and comparatively more focused and narrower in scope, which implies that they are made up of concepts and propositions that are testable. The development of the concept of caring as the central concept to nursing gave rise to several theories focused on caring. The most prominent of these caring theories is Madeleine Leininger’s theory of culture care.
Madeleine Leininger: Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory
Culture plays an important role in every healthcare setting. Integrating culture with care is an effective way of guiding thought processes, actions, and decisions within that culture.
Leininger’s theory takes into account the cultural beliefs and values of individuals and groups to provide satisfying and culturally congruent nursing care. Culture exhibits both diversity and universality. While diversity includes different ways of practicing care, universality refers to the common elements in care. While adopting this model, it is important to incorporate cultural differences into nursing assessments, interventions, and care plans.
The culture care theory stresses the importance of cultural care and the need to be sensitive to the role of culture in health and healing. Consider this case. A South East Asian female patient admitted to a U.S. hospital for gynecological complaints felt that she was in a hostile healthcare environment, in the midst of caregivers who were not friendly or sensitive to her needs. Everything, starting from the admission procedure, routine questioning, and physical assessment to the diet she was served, sent out negative signals to the patient. Had the attending nursing and other healthcare professionals been sensitive to her cultural differences and taken the trouble to make her feel comfortable, this turn of events could easily have been avoided. Culturally competent nurses can create positive environments where patients feel accepted and their cultural norms, beliefs, and practices are respected.
This model is relevant to education, research and practice. NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment
|Leininger’s model is helpful to nurse educators to teach the importance of transcultural nursing to students and function as ambassadors of a culturally competent nursing force.||Further research will guide the discovery of new knowledge, which may transform the way nursing is taught and practiced.||It helps to meet the needs of culturally diverse people.|
Leininger’s theory presumes that human beings are inherently social and concerned about the well-being and survival of others. Nursing actions, therefore, need to be culture specific so as to reflect an understanding of and respect for the client’s values, beliefs, and practices.
What are some of the cultural factors that you should consider in patient care? Can you recollect instances from your personal experience where this theory could have been effectively applied to achieve better patient outcomes?
This week will help you make the distinction between middle-range theories and grand theories. Examining research studies on Royï’s adaptation model, Leiningerï’s theory, and Penderï’s model from the CINAHL database will help you realize how the concepts of these theories find application in nursing practice. You will also get an opportunity to critique a theory of your choice. Below is a list of Middle Range Theories that can be applicable to your nursing practice. It is not a full list, however they are commonly used Middle Range Theories used in nursing practice.
- The Framework of Systemic Organization
- Theory of Group Power within Organizations
- Theory of Comfort
- Theory of Maternal Role Attainment
- Nurse as Wounded Healer
- Synergy Model – AACN
- Behavioral Systems Model
- Quality of Nursing care Theory
- Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms
- Advancing Technology, Caring, and Nursing
- Health Belief Model
- Theory of Uncertainty in Illness
- Goal Attainment Theory
- Theory of Comfort
- Theory of Symptom Management
- Theory of Adaptation to Chronic Pain
- Theory of Self-Transcendence
- Theory of Therapeutic Intention
- Perception of Dissonant Pattern
- Health Belief Model
- Theory of Reasoned Action
- Theory of Skill Acquisition
- Uncertainty in Illness Theory
- Theory of Exercise as Self-Care
- Theory of Dyspnea
- Self-Care of Chronic Illness
- Theory of Caregiver Stress
- Theory of Fulfillment
- Theory of Successful Aging
- Theory of Generative Quality of Life for Elderly
- Theory of Nursing Presence
- Interaction Model of Client Behavior
- Empowered Holistic Nursing Education
- Music, Mood, and Movement
- Self-Care Management for Vulnerable Populations
NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment- Nola Pender’s Model
Nola J. Pender: Health Promotion Model (HPM)
The fundamental aim of every healthcare professional is health promotion and disease prevention. This shift in focus has taken place because of the high costs involved in healthcare. Pender’s health promotion model was developed to provide a framework for predicting health promoting behaviors.
The factors that influence health behaviors are multidimensional. All factors are interrelated and, therefore, produce results that exert both direct and indirect influences on health promoting behaviors. These factors cooperatively support the processes that influence individuals to make informed decisions and participate in health promoting behaviors. Identification of the interrelationships and an understanding of the dynamics that facilitate health specific behaviors provide insight into both health compromising and health enhancing behaviors, and is what makes the model useful to researchers (Pender,1996)2.
Consider this example. Lack of physical activity and sedentary life styles are emerging as major health risks today. Populations across the world require regular physical activity to maintain good health and prevent diseases. Pender’s HPM model can be used as a framework to examine the necessity of continued research in this important area of health behavior, as this will facilitate the identification of the most effective interventions to promote physical activity among diverse populations
The HPM model is relevant to education, research, and practice.
|It is useful to design wellness-focused courses in nursing curriculum.||Research in different areas trying to correlate the influence of HPM on health promoting behaviors helps to test the empirical precision of the model.||Implementing this model will have a positive impact on health promotion within clinical practice, thereby affecting the health of the population as a whole.|
2.Pender, N. (1996). Health promotion in nursing practice. (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange.
NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment – Week 4 Discussion
Continue with the theory you chose last week.
- Describe two research studies that used your theory as a foundation. Describe how each study used the theory.
- How were the concepts operationalized? When concepts are operationalized, they are turned from an abstract form to something measurable.
- In your discussion question response, provide a substantive response that illustrates a well-reasoned and thoughtful response; is factually correct with relevant scholarly citations, references, and examples; and demonstrates a clear connection to the readings.
- Post your response to the Discussion area by the assigned due date.
- Be sure to correct any spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors before you post.
- By the end of day four (4), respond to at least 2 of your peers’ submissions. In your participation responses to your peers, comments must demonstrate thorough analysis of postings and extend meaningful discussion by building on previous postings.
Note: Review South University’s Substantive Participation Policy Criteria, Helpful Tips, and Late Policy available by clicking on the South University Policy and Guidelines navigation tab here. The late policy applies to late discussion question responses. NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment
Good work with a nice discussion of research studies that used Henderson – just needing a little more detail about the studies. I also only see one peer interaction?
Sample Week 4 Discussion Kristen Swanson’s Theory in Research Studies
Kristen Swanson’s Theory in Nursing Education
A research study titled Finding Meaning Through Kristen Swanson’s Caring Behaviors: A Cornerstone of Healing for Nursing Education by McKelvey (2018) wanted to determine if by applying this theory as a nurse educator change the students’ perspectives of educators who were seen are caring or uncaring. McKelvey (2018, p.6) states, “Swanson’s five caring behaviors—can serve as the foundation for healing relationships between nurse educators and their students”. As a nurse, McKelvey (2018) applied Swanson’s theory to each patient and family as was initially indicated. As a nurse educator, she wanted to provide a therapeutic relationship with her students. Although, there is no literature of using Swanson’s theory in the nurse educator role, McKelvey (2018) found how to apply it through each of the five components.
In the first concept, Swanson (1991, p.163) defined knowing as, ““striving to understand an event as it has meaning in the life of the other”. McKelvey (2018) used this theory through learning more about her students on an academic and personal level. She learned what motivated her students to study as well as their type of teaching strategy they benefited from. The author assessed her own learning and teaching style. Furthermore, she was engaged by teaching them skills needed. The second concept being with is, “being emotionally present to the other, striving to understand an event as it has meaning in the life of the other” (Swanson, 1991, p.193). The author applied this concept by being available for support, created an active learning environment, arranged for meetings to discuss any challenges. McKelvey (2018, p.7) states, “Being with my students provides them with presence, authenticity, and vulnerability, and ultimately tells them that they matter to me as students and as people”. The third concept doing for is, “comforting, anticipating, protective of the other’s needs and performed competently and skillfully” (Swanson, 1991, p.164). McKelvey used this concept by providing a calm and reassurance environment to eliminate anxiety, provide evidence-based research, and gave tools to find answers and how to handle difficult patient situations. The fourth concept enabling is, “facilitating the other’s passage through life transitions and unfamiliar events” (Swanson, 1991, p.164). This was applied by helping transition into the nursing role, provide feedback, and care in an unfamiliar situation. The last concept maintaining belief is, “sustaining faith in the other’s capacity to get through an event or transition” (Swanson, 1991, p.162). This was used by being realistic, understand limitations, need for growth, and offering support. McKelvey (2018, p.10) concluded, ” Swanson’s (1991) middle range theory of caring provides nurse educators with an ideal framework to create these caring and healing relationships with nursing students”. NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment
Kristen Swanson’s Theory in Primiparous Mother
In Measurement of Swanson’s Theory of Caring Using Primiparous Mothers by Mott (2016), a study was conducted by applying Swanson’s theory to a caring relationship between nurse and mother to increase the maternal-newborn initial bond through confidence. Mott (2016, p.96) included Swanson’s theory that a nurse being present and active is caring, the nurse creates a therapeutic environment, relationship occurs through empowerment, and give inspiration at most needed times. A total of 104 mothers participated in by completing a 24 and 14 question survey rating from 1-6 that measured the caring behaviors of the nurse as seen by the patient. This study was compared to others that focused on the same correlation. Motts’ (2016, p.100) study concluded, “The acts of the nurses demonstrating being tireless with their patients, sympathetic, empathetic, and nonjudgmental were represented in the nurses’ caring quality characteristics of Swanson’s theory of caring found in the being with, enabling, and maintaining belief caring processes”. The knowing and doing for concept was measured with the nurse verbally and through tasks. Furthermore, it was found within this study using the five concepts of Swanson’s theory were essential for the primiparous mother confidence as she accepts her role transition to motherhood. Lastly, Mott (2016, p.100) determined, “, nurses need to be aware that the nurse–patient relationship is essential in promoting maternal confidence with primiparous mothers”.
Kristen Swansons’s Theory of Healing and Caring (1991) can be applied in numerous ways including the role of the nurse educator and increasing confidence in the primiparous mother. In both studies, there was a correlation when each concept was applied by increasing self-confidence, encouragement, and providing support. Each concept was individually important for the goal of theory to be met. When applied correctly, caring behaviors were seen in the nurse. Peterson and Bredow (2017, p.143) state, “Swanson’s Theory of Caring may be used effectively to establish therapeutic relationships with diverse populations, far beyond the perinatal context, to promote the individuals’ wellness across life span, making it generalizable to any nurse–client relationship and any clinical setting”.
McKelvey, M. (2018). Finding meaning through Kristen Swanson’s caring behaviors: A cornerstone of health for nursing education. Creative Nursing, 24(1), 6-11. https://doi.org/10.1891/1078-45220.127.116.11
Mott, B. (2016). Measurement of Swanson’s Theory of Caring Using Primiparous Mothers. International Journal for Human Caring, 20(2), 96–101. https://doi-org.su.idm.oclc.org/10.20467/1091-5710-20.2.96
Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T. S. (2017). Middle range theories: Application to nursing research (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Swanson, K. M. (1991). Empirical development of a middle range theory of caring. Nursing Research, 40, 161–166. NSG 5002 Week 4 Project Assignment