NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body.
When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease.
For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
To Prepare for NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
- Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
- Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
- Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
- Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria- NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
To access your rubric:
Week 1 Discussion Rubric
Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1
To Participate in this Discussion:
Week 1 Discussion
Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Advanced Pharmacology
What’s Happening This Module?
This course is composed of eight (8) separate modules. Each module consists of an overarching topic in which each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. As you work through each module, you will have an opportunity to draw upon the knowledge you gain in various discussion and assignment components which will be due throughout each of the modules. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Module 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing is a one-week module. In Week 1 of the course, you will examine how patient factors may influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. You will also examine the ethical and legal implications of prescribing drugs, as well as advanced practice nurse strategies in guiding prescription drug decision-making. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
|What do I have to do?||When do I have to do it?|
|Review your Learning Resources||Days 1-7 Week 1|
|Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics||Post by Day 3 of Week 1, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 1.|
|Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs||Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1.|
Go to the Week’s Content
Week 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing
How do beta-blockers work? What exactly do antibiotics do to the bacteria they target? What effects does an anti-depressant have on blood flow? NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Questions like these are related to the underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. As an advanced practice nurse, understanding these fundamental pharmacotherapeutic concepts is important to ensure that the prescription drugs you recommend for your patients will be safe and effective to treat and/or manage their symptoms. Additionally, as the advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to ensure that when prescribing prescription drugs, you adhere to the ethical and legal principles set forth for prescribing drugs as an added layer of protection and safety for the patients you will treat. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
This week, you will analyze factors that may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes of a patient and assess the details of a personalized plan of care that you develop based on influencing factors and patient history. You will also evaluate and analyze ethical and legal implications and practices related to prescribing drugs, including disclosure and nondisclosure, and analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Learning Objectives- NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
- Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in patients
- Assess patient factors and history to develop personalized plans of care
- Evaluate ethical and legal implications related to prescribing drugs
- Analyze ethical and legal practices of prescribing drugs
- Analyze strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure
- Justify advanced practice nurse strategies to guide prescription drug decision-making
- Analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Learning Resources- NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
- Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3)
- Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7)
- Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12)
- Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33)
- Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42)
- Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45)
American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767
American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.
This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm
This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html
This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf
This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html
This website details key aspects of drug registration.
Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements: Development, Interpretation, and Application (2nd ed.). Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association.
This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list
This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.
Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17
This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing. NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist‐led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446
The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‐led educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students’ prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
Introduction to Advanced Pharmacology
Meet Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons College of Nursing and Health Sciences as she discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. (8m).