Nursing Theory Assignment

Nursing Theory Assignment


  1. Read Chapter 5 in Fain textbook
  2. Review Chapter 5 PowerPoint
  3. Read Nursing Theory Notes
  4. Submit Nursing Theory Assignment
    1. Write a formal paper on the Health Promotion Model and Hans Selye’s Stress Theory. Use essay format for your paper including: a running head, title page, and reference(s) according to APA format. The body of the paper should be 2-3 pages. The paper will address the following:
      • i.State each theory in your own words.
      • ii.How does each theorist address nursing, person, environment, health, and illness?

How is the theory applicable to your practice today?


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Nursing Theory Notes As professional nurses we do not often think in terms of theory. However, theory attempts to explain the world around us and assists us in making needed changes. We use many non-nursing theories, i.e. systems theory, change theory, management theories, but in this section we will focus on nursing theories. Terms 1. Philosophy – a set of beliefs that are acquired and interpreted throughout a lifetime of experience with reality. 2. Science – a body of testable knowledge. 3. Fact – something known with certainty, always the same under the same circumstances. 4. Concept – general, intangible and symbolic ways of referring to reality. 5.
Theory – systematically related sets of concepts that describe, explain, or predict the real world. 6. Model – a picture of reality, provides a way to visualize a theory in order to simplify thinking. 7. Paradigm – the network of science, philosophy and theory accepted by a discipline or person. The prevailing paradigm directs the activities of a discipline. 8. Metaparadigm – the most global perspective of a discipline, singles out the phenomena with a discipline deals in a unique manner, i.e. person, environment, health, illness, etc. Why do we Need Theories in Nursing? 1.
Theories can interrelate concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon. 2. Theories can be the basis for hypotheses that can be tested. 3. Theories contribute to and assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them. 4. Theories can be utilized by the profession to guide and improve practice. 5. Theories must be consistent with other validated theories, laws, and principles but will leave open, unanswered questions that need to be investigated. 6. Theory supports professional autonomy by guiding practice, education and research. Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Chapter 5 Applying Appropriate Theories and Conceptual Models Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Overview of Theory ▪ Theory needed to integrate, organize, and classify accumulated fact into meaningful patterns ▪ Many fields of inquiry contribute to development of nursing knowledge ▪ Allows researchers to make general statements about variables and the relationships among variables Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Overview of Theory (cont’d) ▪ Theories serve several purposes in development of science and clinical practice • Summarize existing knowledge • Give meaning to isolated empirical findings
• Provides structure or framework that provides systematic means of collecting data to describe, explain, and predict nursing practice ‒ Theoretical framework, conceptual framework, and conceptual model used interchangeably Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Inductive Versus Deductive Approach ▪ Two approaches to discovering or testing new knowledge ▪ Inductive approach • Involves collecting observations that lead to conclusions or hypotheses • Begins with specific observation and moves to testable, general statements • Underlies qualitative approach to inquiry Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Inductive Versus Deductive Approach (cont’d) ▪ Deductive approach • Generates theory by beginning with known facts and moving from the general to the specific • Used to test predictions and validate existing relationships • Helps unveil existing relationships • Not all deductions can be verified, particularly when methods of measurement are inadequate or underdeveloped Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Classification of Theories in Nursing
▪ Nursing theory is a specific and concrete set of concepts and propositions that claim to account for or characterize phenomena of interest to discipline of nursing ▪ Metaparadigm refers to primary phenomena of interest to discipline Nursing Theory Assignment
• • • • Person Environment Health Nursing Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Clicker Quiz A researcher who moves from observation to an idea uses a: A. B. C. D. theoretical framework. deductive approach. inductive approach. conceptual model. Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Grand Theories ▪ Complex and broad in scope ▪ Attempt to explain broad scopes and include numerous concepts that are not well-defined ▪ Not grounded in empirical data ▪ Uses of a systems approach that focuses on human needs of protection or stress relief central to this discipline ▪ Examples of grand theories Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Middle-Range Theories ▪ First introduced in sociology in late 1960s ▪ Appropriate for defining or refining substantive component of nursing science and practice ▪ Describe, explain, and predict phenomena ▪ Explicit and testable ▪ Organized, limited scope, contain fewer concepts/variables than grand theories ▪ Gained popularity in last decade because they are more specific than grand theories Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Practice Theories ▪ Sometimes referred to as prescriptive theories ▪ More specific that middle-range theories and produce specific directions or guidelines for practice ▪ Can cover particular element of specialty ▪ Typically describe elements of nursing care
▪ Contain few concepts, are easily understandable ▪ Narrow in scope, limited to specific populations Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Borrowed Theories ▪ Based on theoretical work from other disciplines, such as sociology ▪ Theories are taken from other disciplines and applied to nursing questions and research problems ▪ Useful if the fit and relevance to nursing are clarified Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Clicker Quiz Which theories are usually not useful as guides for nursing practice? A. B. C. D. grand theories prescriptive theories borrowed theories middle-range theories Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Concepts ▪ Building blocks of a theory ▪ Defined and understood within theory of which they are a part ▪ Symbolic statements describing phenomenon or class or phenomena ▪ Vary in levels of abstraction ▪ Formulated in words that enable people to communicate meanings about realities Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Conceptual Models
▪ Synonymous with terms such as conceptual framework and conceptual system ▪ Represent ideas or notions put together in unique way to describe particular area of concern ▪ Idea of experiencing the world “by walking in someone else’s shoes” ▪ Loosely structure compared with other theories, but provide framework for communicating particular perception of world Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Conceptual Models of Nursing ▪ Provide direction for study ▪ Present nursing in relation to four central metaparadigm concepts ▪ Utilizing nursing model allows researcher to view study from nursing perspective from the beginning ▪ Conceptual nursing models frame the way nursing will be viewed and the direction research study will take Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company Clicker Quiz In a theoretical definition, concepts are defined by: A. B. C. D. symbolic statements. a complex set of recognitions. empirical indicators of the concept. their relationship to other concepts. Copyright ©2017 F.A. Davis Company . Nursing Theory Assignment
Nursing Theory Assignment