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Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation

Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation

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Part 2 of the presentation will focus on the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy.


Slide Presentation

Responsible for:  drug interactions, side effects and adverse reactions

Slides 17, 18, 19 with a reference page at the end




Unformatted Attachment Preview

GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease BY: BETH TAYLOR, CHRISTINA GRAHAM, JAMES KIM AND JULIE SMITH Physiology  Digestive tract   Digestion   Breaks down food both physically and chemically Mechanical digestion   Essentially a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus Involves physically breaking down food Chemical digestion  The use of digestive enzymes to break food down further Physiology cont.  Esophagus   Peristalsis   3-4 cm long segment of contracted smooth muscle Diaphragm   Component of anti-reflux mechanism LES   GERD’s main staging area Provides an extrinsic component to the gastroesophageal barrier Increase of thoraco-abdominal pressure gradient  Abnormal gastric emptying Physiology cont.  Mucosal damage   Unclear if inflammation is a cause or consequence Refluxate  Harmful to the esophagus Pathophysiology of GERD  What is Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease(GERD)?   Malfunction in lower esophageal sphincter Effects of GERD on patient  Frequent heartburn and regurgitation  Chronic cough  Laryngitis  Chest pain Pathophysiology of GERD cont.  Health conditions that may increase at risk for GERD include: Obesity Pregnancy Smoking Delayed stomach emptying Hypercalcemia Connective tissue disorder Dry Mouth Asthma Diabetes Medication induced GERD Pathophysiology of GERD cont.  Treatment options for GERD  Control heartburn through over the counter medications  Prescription strength medications  Surgery and other procedures Clinical manifestations  most common cause of non-cardiac chest pain  presents to the ER with pain resembling a myocardial infarction  Pressure, tightness, pain, squeezing or aching sensation in your chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back  Nausea  Indigestion  heartburn or abdominal pain  Shortness of breath Clinical Manifestations cont.  Typical Symptoms  Heartburn  Regurgitation  Dysphagia  Nausea  indigestion Clinical Manifestations cont.  Atypical symptoms  Coughing  chest pain  Wheezing  Hoarseness EVALUATION:  Tests are not always necessary to make a diagnosis of GERD  Evaluation of GERD begins with a history and physical exam  Physical findings: - tenderness in the upper abdomen - belching  – gas - heartburn - lower chest pain TEST:  – esophageal pH monitoring -  measures the amount of acid in the esophagus over 24-48 hours – endoscopy - uses a flexible tube with a light and video camera - via the throat examines the esophagus for inflammation, strictures or any abnormal changes in the lining  – manometry - identifies problems with motility and valve pressure in the esophagus – measures function of the esophageal valves LABS:  Some blood work may be ordered to help with the diagnosis of GERD - CBC - Serum gastrin - stool guaiac - chest x-ray REFERENCES:  De Giorgi, F., Palmiero, M., Esposito, I., Mosca, F., & Cuomo, R. (2006).Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation
Pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. ACTA Otorhinnolaryncol Ital, 26, 241-246. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17345932  Herbella, F. A. & Patti, M. G., (2010). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: From pathophysiology to treatment. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921084/  Mayo Clinic. (2016). Gerd. Symptoms. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/symptoms/CON20025201  Marco G Patti, MD. (2016). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Clinical Presentation. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/176595-clinical#b1  Sloan-Thompson, G., (2015). Understanding anatomy and physiology: A visual auditory, interactive approach (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company  U.A. 2015, Understanding Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) – Diagnosis and treatment, Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd …

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.