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2 The Pedagogy Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice, Fourth Edition drives comprehension through various strategies that meet the learning needs of students, while also generating enthusiasm about the topic. This interactive approach addresses different learning styles, making this the ideal text to ensure mastery of key concepts. The pedagogical aids that appear in most chapters include the following: 3 4 5 6 World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 email@example.com www.jblearning.com Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, www.jblearning.com. Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Copyright © 2017 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. The content, statements, views, and opinions herein are the sole expression of the respective authors and not that of Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement or recommendation by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC and such reference shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. All trademarks displayed are the trademarks of the parties noted herein. Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice, Fourth Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product. There may be images in this book that feature models; these models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or participate in the activities represented in the images. Any screenshots in this product are for educational and instructive purposes only. Any individuals and scenarios featured in the case studies throughout this product may be real or fictitious, but are used for instructional purposes only. The authors, editor, and publisher have made every effort to provide accurate information. However, they are not responsible for errors, omissions, or for any outcomes related to the use of the contents of this book and take no responsibility for the use of the products and procedures described. Treatments and side effects described in this book may not be applicable to all people; likewise, some people may require a dose or experience a side effect that is not described herein. Drugs and medical devices are discussed that may have limited availability controlled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use only in a research study or clinical trial. Research, clinical practice, and government regulations often change the accepted standard in this field. When consideration is being given to use of any drug in the clinical setting, the health care provider or reader is responsible for determining FDA status of the drug, reading the package insert, and reviewing prescribing information for the most up-to-date recommendations on dose, precautions, and contraindications, and determining the appropriate usage for the product. This is especially important in the case of drugs that are new or seldom used. 08323-1 7 Production Credits VP, Executive Publisher: David D. Cella Executive Editor: Amanda Martin Acquisitions Editor: Teresa Reilly Editorial Assistant: Danielle Bessette Production Editor:
Vanessa Richards Senior Marketing Manager: Jennifer Scherzay VP, Manufacturing and Inventory Control: Therese Connell Composition: Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd. Cover Design: Kristin E. Parker Rights & Media Specialist: Wes DeShano Media Development Editor: Shannon Sheehan Cover Image: © robertiez/iStock/Getty Images Plus/Getty Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley Cover Printing: RR Donnelley Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Role development in professional nursing practice / [edited by] Kathleen Masters. – Fourth edition. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-284-07832-9 (pbk.) I. Masters, Kathleen, editor. [DNLM: 1. Nursing–standards. 2. Nursing–trends. 3. Nurse’s Role. 4. Philosophy, Nursing. 5. Professional Practice. WY 16] RT82 610.73–dc23 2015022040 6048 Printed in the United States of America 19 18 17 16 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 Dedication This book is dedicated to my Heavenly Father and to my loving family: my husband, Eddie, and my two daughters, Rebecca and Rachel. Words cannot express my appreciation for their ongoing encouragement and support throughout my career. 9 CONTENTS Preface Contributors
UNIT I: FOUNDATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE 1 A History of Health Care and Nursing Karen Saucier Lundy and Kathleen Masters Classical Era Middle Ages The Renaissance The Dark Period of Nursing The Industrial Revolution And Then There Was Nightingale… Continued Development of Professional Nursing in the United Kingdom The Development of Professional Nursing in Canada The Development of Professional Nursing in Australia Early Nursing Education and Organization in the United States The Evolution of Nursing in the United States:
The First Century of Professional Nursing The New Century International Council of Nurses Conclusion References 2 Frameworks for Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters 10 Overview of Selected Nursing Theories Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies Overview of Selected Non-Nursing Theories Relationship of Theory to Professional Nursing Practice Conclusion References 3 Philosophy of Nursing Mary W. Stewart Philosophy Early Philosophy Paradigms Beliefs Values Developing a Personal Philosophy of Nursing Conclusion References 4 Foundations of Ethical Nursing Practice Janie B. Butts and Karen L. Rich Ethics Ethical Theories and Approaches Professional Ethics and Codes Ethical Analysis and Decision Making in Nursing Conclusion References 5 Social Context of Professional Nursing Mary W. Stewart, Katherine Elizabeth Nugent, Rowena W. Elliott, and 11 Kathleen Masters Nursing’s Social Contract with Society Public Image of Nursing The Gender Gap Changing Demographics and Cultural Competence Access to Health Care Societal Trends Trends in Nursing Conclusion References 6 Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role Kathleen Masters and Melanie Gilmore Professional Nursing Roles and Values The Socialization (or Formation) Process Facilitating the Transition to Professional Practice Conclusion References 7 Advancing and Managing Your Professional Nursing Career Mary Louise Coyne and Cynthia Chatham Nursing: A Job or a Career? Trends That Impact Nursing Career Decisions Showcasing Your Professional Self Mentoring Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Engagement Expectations for Your Performance 12 Taking Care of Self Conclusion References UNIT II: PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE AND THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT CARE 8 Patient Safety and Professional Nursing Practice Jill Rushing and Kathleen Masters Patient Safety Critical Thinking, Clinical Judgment, and Clinical Reasoning in Nursing Practice Conclusion References 9 Quality Improvement and Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Healthcare Quality Measurement of Quality
The Role of the Nurse in Quality Improvement Conclusion References Professional Nursing Practice 10 Evidence-Based Kathleen Masters Evidence-Based Practice: What Is It? Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice Promoting Evidence-Based Practice Searching for Evidence Evaluating the Evidence Implementation Models for Evidence-Based Practice 13 Conclusion References 11 Patient-Centered Care and Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Dimensions of Patient-Centered Care Communication as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care Patient Education as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care Conclusion References in Professional Nursing Practice 12 Informatics Kathleen Masters and Cathy K. Hughes Informatics: What Is It? The Impact of Legislation on Health Informatics Nursing Informatics Competencies Basic Computer Competencies Information Literacy Information Management Current and Future Trends Conclusion References and Collaboration in Professional Nursing Practice 13 Teamwork Sharon Vincent and Kathleen Masters Healthcare Delivery System Nursing Models of Patient Care Roles of the Professional Nurse 14 Interprofessional Teams and Healthcare Quality and Safety Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Domains Interprofessional Team Performance and Communication Conclusion References Issues in Professional Nursing Practice 14 Ethical Janie B. Butts and Karen L. Rich Relationships in Professional Practice Moral Rights and Autonomy Social Justice Death and End-of-Life Care Conclusion References and the Professional Nurse 15 Law Kathleen Driscoll, Kathleen Masters, and Evadna Lyons The Sources of Law Classification and Enforcement of the Law Nursing Scope and Standards Malpractice and Negligence Nursing Licensure Professional Accountability
Conclusion References Appendix A Standards of Professional Nursing Practice Appendix B Provisions of Code of Ethics for Nurses Appendix C The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses 15 Glossary Index 16 PREFACE Although the process of professional development is a lifelong journey, it is a journey that begins in earnest during the time of initial academic preparation. The goal of this book is to provide nursing students with a road map to help guide them along their journey as a professional nurse. This book is organized into two units. The chapters in the first unit focus on the foundational concepts that are essential to the development of the individual professional nurse. The chapters in Unit II address issues related to professional nursing practice and the management of patient care, specifically in the context of quality and safety. In the fourth edition, the chapter content is conceptualized, when applicable, around nursing competencies, professional standards, and recommendations from national groups, such as Institute of Medicine reports.
The chapters included in Unit I provide the student nurse with a basic foundation in areas such as nursing history, theory, philosophy, ethics, socialization into the nursing role, and the social context of nursing. All chapters have been updated, and several chapters in Unit I have been expanded in this edition. Revisions to the chapter on nursing history include the addition of contributions of prominent nurses and achievements related to nursing in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. The theory chapter now includes additional nursing theorists as well as a brief overview of several non-nursing theories frequently used in nursing research and practice. The social context of nursing chapter now incorporates not only societal trends, but also trends in nursing practice and education. The chapter related to professional career development in nursing has been completely rewritten for this edition.
The chapters in Unit II are more directly related to patient care management. In the fourth edition, Unit II chapter topics are presented in the context of quality and safety. Chapter topics include the role of the nurse in patient safety, the role of the nurse in quality improvement, evidence-based nursing practice, the role of the nurse in patient-centered care, informatics in nursing practice, the role of the nurse related to teamwork and collaboration, ethical issues in nursing practice, and the law as it relates to patient care and nursing. Most Unit II chapters have undergone major revisions with a refocus of the content on recommended nursing and healthcare competencies. The fourth edition continues to incorporate the Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies throughout each chapter. The Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies “emanate from the foundation of nursing knowledge” (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, 17 p. 4) and are based on the American Association of Colleges of Nursing’s Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice, National League for Nursing Council of Associate Degree Nursing competencies, Institute of Medicine recommendations, Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies, and American Nurses Association standards, as well as other professional organization standards and recommendations.
The 10 competencies included in the model are patient-centered care, professionalism, informatics and technology, evidencebased practice, leadership, systems-based practice, safety, communication, teamwork and collaboration, and quality improvement. Essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) reflecting cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning domains are specified for each competency. The KSA identified in the model reflect the expectations for initial nursing practice following the completion of a prelicensure professional nursing education program (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 4). 18 Source: Modified from Massachusetts Department of Higher Education. (2010). Nurse of the future: Nursing core competencies (p. 5). Retrieved from http://www.mass.edu/currentinit/documents/NursingCoreCompetencies.pdf The Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies graphic illustrates through the use of broken lines the reciprocal and continuous relationship between each of the competencies and nursing knowledge, that the competencies can overlap and are not mutually exclusive, and that all competencies are of equal importance. In addition, nursing knowledge is placed as the core in the graphic to illustrate that nursing knowledge reflects the overarching art and science of professional nursing practice (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 4). This new edition has competency boxes throughout the chapters that link examples of the KSA appropriate to the chapter content to Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies required of entry-level professional 19 nurses. The competency model in its entirety is available online at Philosophy Paper of Nursing Essay www.mass.edu/currentinit/documents/NursingCoreCompetencies.pdf. This new edition continues to use case studies, congruent with Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, and Day’s (2010) Carnegie Report recommendations that nursing educators teach for “situated cognition” using narrative strategies to lead to “situated action,” thus increasing the clinical connection in our teaching or that we teach for “clinical salience.” In addition, critical thinking questions are included throughout each chapter to promote student reflection on the chapter concepts. Philosophy Paper of Nursing Essay
Classroom activities are also provided based on chapter content. Additional resources not connected to this text, but applicable to the content herein, include a toolkit focused on the nursing core competencies available at www.mass.edu/nahi/documents/ToolkitFirst%20Edition-May%202014-r1.pdf and teaching activities related to nursing competencies available on the QSEN website at www.qsen.org/teaching-strategies/. Although the topics included in this textbook are not inclusive of all that could be discussed in relationship to the broad theme of role development in professional nursing practice, it is my prayer that the subjects herein make a contribution to the profession of nursing by providing the student with a solid foundation and a desire to grow as a professional nurse throughout the journey that we call a professional nursing career. Let the journey begin. —Kathleen Masters References Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V., & Day, L. (2010). Educating nurses: A call for radical transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Massachusetts Department of Higher Education. (2010). Philosophy Paper of Nursing Essay
Nurse of the future: Nursing core competencies. Retrieved from http://www.mass.edu/currentinit/documents/NursingCoreCompetencies.pdf 20 CONTRIBUTORS Janie B. Butts, PhD, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg, Mississippi Cynthia Chatham, DSN, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Long Beach, Mississippi Mary Louise Coyne, DNSc, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Long Beach, Mississippi Kathleen Driscoll, JD, MS, RN University of Cincinnati College of Nursing Cincinnati, Ohio Rowena W. Elliott, PhD, RN, FAAN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg, Mississippi Melanie Gilmore, PhD, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg, Mississippi Cathy K. Hughes, DNP, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg, Mississippi Karen Saucier Lundy, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor Emeritus University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg, Mississippi Evadna Lyons, PhD, RN East Central Community College School of Nursing Decatur, Mississippi Katherine Elizabeth Nugent, PhD, RN Dean, College of Nursing University of Southern Mississippi Hattiesburg, Mississippi Karen L. Rich, PhD, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Long Beach, Mississippi 21 Jill Rushing, MSN, RN University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg, Mississippi Mary W. Stewart, PhD, RN Director of PhD Program University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Nursing Jackson, Mississippi Sharon Vincent, DNP, RN, CNOR University of North Carolina College of Nursing Charlotte, North Carolina 22 UNIT I Foundations of Professional Nursing Practice 23 CHAPTER 1 A History of Health Care and Nursing Karen Saucier Lundy and Kathleen Masters 24 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Identify social, political, and economic influences on the development of professional nursing practice. 2. Identify important leaders and events that have significantly affected the development of professional nursing practice. 25 Key Terms and Concepts » Greek era » Roman era » Deaconesses » Florence Nightingale » Reformation » Chadwick Report » Shattuck Report » William Rathbone » Ethel Fenwick » Jeanne Mance » Mary Agnes Snively » Goldmark Report » Brown Report » Isabel Hampton Robb » American Nurses Association (ANA) » Lavinia Lloyd Dock » American Journal of Nursing (AJN) » Margaret Sanger » Lillian Wald » Jane A. Delano » Annie Goodrich » Mary Brewster » Henry Street Settlement » Elizabeth Tyler » Jessie Sleet Scales » Dorothea Lynde Dix » Clara Barton 26 » Frontier Nursing Service » Mary Breckinridge » Mary D. Osborne » Frances Payne Bolton » International Council of Nurses (ICN) Although no specialized nurse role per se developed in early civilizations, human cultures recognized the need for nursing care. The truly sick person was weak and helpless and could not fulfill the duties that were normally expected of a member of the community. In such cases, someone had to watch over the patient, nurse him or her, and provide care. In most societies, this nurse role was filled by a family member, usually female. As in most cultures, the childbearing woman had special needs that often resulted in a specialized role for the caregiver. Every society since the dawn of time had someone to nurs …Philosophy Paper of Nursing Essay
Philosophy Paper of Nursing Essay