Research and Pharmacology
In your professional nursing practice, you will likely encounter both patients and coworkers whose personal or cultural views on pharmacology may be quite different from your own. Understanding the most current research on pharmacological topics will help you make informed choices.
For this assessment, imagine your supervisor asks you to write an article on a controversial topic for the organization’s monthly newsletter in which you review the most recent research on the topic. She stresses you must present a balanced overview and equally address the pros and cons of the topic.
Complete the following as you prepare to write your article:
- Choose a topic from the list below:
- The use of medical marijuana.
- The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) versus traditional Western medicine.
- Experimental drug programs and disease management.
- Mandated vaccinations for children and the implications for parental choice not to vaccinate.
- Search the Capella library and the Internet to locate peer-reviewed research articles on your selected topic. The information you use to support your work in this assessment must be as recent as possible.
Note: These are very broad topics. Limit your work to the scope of your practice and be mindful of the page-length requirements.
Once you have identified your topic, organize your article as you wish. Be sure to include the following:
- Explain the appropriate use of the pharmacology related to the topic. Include elements such as diseases or health concerns associated with the topic and the efficacy and applicability of the pharmacology.
- Explain the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and use of the pharmacology related to the topic. Remember to address both the benefits and limitations of the pharmacology in terms of specific diseases and populations.
- Explain how the topic affects both the community and the organization in terms of promoting health and wellness.
- Describe any inequities regarding access to the pharmacology related to the topic. Is access limited to specific groups or populations? Who determines access? On what is it based? Does access influence choice?
Follow APA guidelines to format this assessment. Include a title page and reference page.
- Number of pages: 5–6 (no more than 7).
- At least 4 current scholarly or professional resources.
- Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced font.
The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:
- Bench, S., Day, T., & Metcalfe, A. (2013). Randomised controlled trials: An introduction for nurse researchers. Nurse Researcher, 20(5), 38–44.
- Edwards, B., & Chakraborty, S. (2012). Risk communication and the pharmaceutical industry: What is the reality? Drug Safety, 35(11), 1027–1040.
- Folmsbee, S. (2014, October 5). Folmsbee: Medical marijuana deserves research. University Wire. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.library.capella.edu
- Hoffmann, D. E., & Weber, E. (2010). Medical marijuana and the law. The New England Journal of Medicine, 362(16), 1453–1457.
- Kubiszyn, T., & Mire, S. S. (2014). A review of recent FDA drug safety communications for pediatric psychotropics. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(4), 716–727.
- Schwartz, L. M., & Woloshin, S. (2013). The drug facts box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(Supplement 3), 14069–14074.
- Ward-Abel, N., Vernon, K., & Warner, R. (2014). An exciting era of treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 10(1), 21–28.
- Doamekpor, L. A., & Zuckerman, D. M. (2012). Lack of diversity in cancer drug trials may exacerbate racial disparities in mortality rates. Cancer Epidemiology, 38(5), 645–646.
- Kesselheim, A. S., & Avorn, J. (2012). The food and drug administration has the legal basis to restrict promotion of flawed comparative effectiveness research. Health Affairs, 31(10), 2200–2205.
- Munro, C. L., & Savel, R. H. (2015). Measles 2015: Why public health matters to critical care. American Journal of Critical Care, 24(3), 192–194.
Course Library Guide
A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the BSN-FP4016 – Pharmacology for Patient Safety Library Guide to help direct your research.
The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation.
- Burchum, J., & Rosenthal, L. (2016). Lehen’s pharmacology for nursing care (9th ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
- Chapters 3, 63, 96, 101, and 110.
The instructional and sample text in this template is informational. After reading the information, please delete it, and use the document as a template for your own paper. To keep the correct format, edit the running head, cover page, headings, and reference list with your own information, and add your own body text. Save this template in a file for future use and information.
The running head is an abbreviated title of the paper. The running head is located at the top of pages of a manuscript or published article to identify the article for readers. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. The words “Running head” are on the cover page but not on the rest of the document. The running head title is all capital letters. Page 1 begins on the cover page. The entire document should be double-spaced, have 1-inch margins on all sides, and use 12 point Times New Roman font.
Full Title of Paper
Learner’s Full Name
Abstract (As this section is optional, check with your instructor.)
An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of a paper. It allows readers to quickly review the key elements of a paper without having to read the entire document. This can be helpful for readers who are searching for specific information and may be reviewing many documents. The abstract may be one of the most important paragraphs in a paper because readers often decide if they will read the document based on information in the abstract. An abstract may not be required in some academic papers; however, it can still be an effective method of gaining the reader’s attention. For example, an abstract will not be required for Capella’s first course, PSYC3002. The following sentences serve as an example of what could be composed as an abstract for this paper: The basic elements of APA style will be reviewed, including formatting of an APA style paper, in-text citations, and a reference list. Additional information will address the components of an introduction, how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and elements of a summary and conclusion section of a paper.
APA Style Paper Template: A Resource for Academic Writing
Please change the titles in this document to fit your paper.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. APA style is used when writing papers in the psychology programs offered at Capella University. This document serves as an APA style template for learners to use when writing their own papers, as well as a resource containing valuable information that can be used when writing academic papers. For more information on APA style, learners can refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010a).
The author demonstrates in the first section of this paper how an introduction effectively introduces the reader to the topic of the paper. In APA style, an introduction never gets a heading. For example, this section did not begin with a heading titled “Introduction,” similar to the following section, which is titled “Writing an Effective Introduction.” The following section will explain in greater detail a model that can be used to effectively write an introduction in an academic paper. The remaining sections of the paper will continue to address APA style and effective writing concepts including section headings, organizing information, the MEAL plan, the conclusion, and the reference list.
Writing an Effective Introduction
An effective introduction often consists of four main components including (a) the position statement, thesis, or hypothesis, which describes the author’s main position; (b) the purpose, which outlines the objective of the paper; (c) the background, which is general information that is needed to understand the content of the paper; and (d) the approach, which is the process or methodology the author uses to achieve the purpose of the paper. This information will help readers understand what will be discussed in the paper. It can also serve as a tool to grab the reader’s attention. Authors may choose to briefly reference sources that will be identified later on in the paper as in this example (American Psychological Association, 2010a; American Psychological Association, 2010b; Walker, 2008).
In an introduction, the writer will often present something of interest to capture the reader’s attention and introduce the issue. Adding an obvious statement of purpose helps the reader know what to expect, while helping the writer to focus and stay on task. For example, this paper will address several components necessary to effectively write an academic paper including (a) how to write an introduction, (b) how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and (c) how to properly use APA style.
Level One Section Heading is Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase
Using section headings can be an effective method of organizing an academic paper. The section headings should not be confused with the running head, which is a different concept described in the cover page of this document. Section headings are not required according to APA style; however, they can significantly improve the quality of a paper. This is accomplished because section headings help both the reader and the author.
Level Two Section Heading is Flush Left, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase
The heading style recommended by APA consists of five levels (American Psychological Association, 2010a, p. 62). This document contains two levels to demonstrate how headings are structured according to APA style. Immediately before the previous paragraph, a Level 1 heading was used. That section heading describes how a Level 1 heading should be written, which is centered, bold, and using uppercase and lowercase letters. For another example, see the section heading “Writing an Effective Introduction” on page 3 of this document. The heading is centered, bold, and uses uppercase and lowercase letters (compared to all uppercase in the running head at the top of each page). If used properly, section headings can significantly contribute to the quality of a paper by helping the reader who wants to understand the information in the document, and the author who desires to effectively describe the information in the document.Research and Pharmacology
Section Headings Help the Reader
Section headings serve multiple purposes including (a) helping readers understand what is being addressed in each section, (b) breaking up text to help readers maintain an interest in the paper, and (c) helping readers choose what they want to read. For example, if the reader of this document wants to learn more about writing an effective introduction, the previous section heading clearly states that is where information can be found. When subtopics are needed to explain concepts in greater detail, different levels of headings are used according to APA style.Research and Pharmacology
Section Headings Help the Author
Section headings do not only help the reader, they help the author organize the document during the writing process. Section headings can be used to arrange topics in a logical order, and they can help an author manage the length of the paper. In addition to an effective introduction and the use of section headings, each paragraph of an academic paper can be written in a manner that helps the reader stay engaged. Capella University promotes the use of the MEAL plan to serve this purpose.
The MEAL Plan
The MEAL plan is a model used by Capella University to help learners effectively compose academic discussions and papers. Each component of the MEAL plan is critical to writing an effective paragraph. The acronym MEAL is based on four components of a paragraph (M = Main point, E = Evidence or Example, A = Analysis, and L = Link). The following section includes a detailed description and examples of each component of the MEAL plan.
When writing the content sections of an academic paper (as opposed to the introduction or conclusion sections), the MEAL plan can be an effective model for designing each paragraph. A paragraph begins with a description of the main point, which is represented by the letter “M” of the MEAL plan. For example, the first sentence of this paragraph clearly states the main point is a discussion of the MEAL plan. Once the main point has been made, evidence and examples can be provided.Research and Pharmacology
The second component of a paragraph contains evidence or examples, which is represented by the letter “E” in the MEAL plan. An example of this component of the MEAL plan is actually (and ironically) this sentence, which provides an example of an example. Evidence can be in the form of expert opinions from research. For example, evidence shows that plagiarism can occur even when it is not intended if sources are not properly cited (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997; Walker, 2008). The previous sentence provides evidence supporting why evidence is used in a paragraph.Research and Pharmacology
Analysis, which is represented by the letter “A” of the MEAL plan, should be based on the author’s interpretation of the evidence. An effective analysis might include a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments, as well as the author’s interpretations of the evidence and examples. If a quote is used, the author will likely provide an analysis of the quote and the specific point it makes for the author’s position. Without an analysis, the reader might not understand why the author discussed the information that the reader just read. For example, the previous sentence was an analysis by the author of why an analysis is performed when writing paragraphs in academic papers.Research and Pharmacology
Even with the first three elements of the MEAL plan, it would not be complete without the final component. The letter “L” of the MEAL plan refers to information that “links” the current and the subsequent paragraphs. The link helps the reader understand what will be discussed in the next paragraph. It summarizes the author’s reasoning and shows how the paragraph fits together and leads (that is, links) into the next section of the paper. For example, this sentence might explain that once the MEAL plan has been effectively used when writing the body of an academic paper, the final section is the summary and conclusion section.
Summary and Conclusion
A summary and conclusion section, which can also be the discussion section of an APA style paper, is the final opportunity for the author to make a lasting impression on the reader. The author can begin by restating opinions or positions and summarizing the most important points that have been presented in the paper. For example, this paper was written to demonstrate to readers how to effectively use APA style when writing academic papers. Various components of an APA style paper that were discussed or displayed in the form of examples include a running head, title page, introduction section, levels of section headings and their use, in-text citations, the MEAL plan, a conclusion, and the reference list.Research and Pharmacology
American Psychological Association. (2010a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Research and Pharmacology
American Psychological Association. (2010b). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Marsh, R. L., Landau, J. D., & Hicks, J. L. (1997). Contributions of inadequate source
monitoring to unconscious plagiarism during idea generation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(4), 886–897. doi: 10.1037/0278- 73188.8.131.526
Walker, A. L. (2008). Preventing unintentional plagiarism: A method for strengthening
paraphrasing skills. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(4), 387–395. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213904438?accountid=27965
Always begin a reference list on a new page. Use a hanging indent after the first line of each reference. The reference list is in alphabetical order by first author’s last name. A reference list only contains sources that are cited in the body of the paper, and all sources cited in the body of the paper must be contained in the reference list.Research and Pharmacology
The reference list above contains an example of how to cite a source when two documents are written in the same year by the same author. The year is also displayed using this method for the corresponding in-text citations as in the next sentence. The author of the first citation (American Psychological Association, 2010a) is also the publisher, therefore, the word “Author” is used in place of the publisher’s name.
When a digital object identifier (DOI) is available for a journal article, it should be placed at the end of the citation. If a DOI is not available, a uniform resource locator (URL) should be used. The Marsh, Landau, and Hicks (1997) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a DOI. The Walker (2008) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a URL.